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45 Cards in this Set

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What is a Mass number ?
The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
What is a nuclear charge ?
The charge on the nucleus of an atom, which is equal to the number of protons the nucleus contains.
What is an Electron ?
A negatively charges subatomic particle found in the "cloud" region of an atom.
What is an Ion ?
An atom, or a group of covalently bonded atoms, that has obtained charge by either gaining or losing one or more electrons.
What is a negative Ion ?
An atom that has gained one or more electrons.
What is a positive Ion ?
An atom that has lost one or more electrons.
What is an Elemental notation ?
A notation that summarizes informayion about an isotope.
What are Elemental symbols ?
One or more letters that represent a shorthand notation for an element.
What is an Orbital ?
A space that can be occupied by up to two electrons.
What is a Valence electron ?
An electron that is found in the outer energy level of an atom.
What is Electron configuration ?
A notation that shows information about the likely locations of the electrons in an atom.
What does the term Kernel mean ?
This term refers to the nucleus of an atom and all of the electrons other than those in the valence shell.
What is Orbital notation ?
A notation that displays information about the electrons of an atom and the orbits they occupy.
What is Metal ?
An element with relatively few valence electrons that tends to form a positive ion when forming an ion.
What is Nonmetal ?
An element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity, which will tend to form a negative ion when forming an ion.
What is a Metalloid ?
An elemnt with some of the charateristics associated with metals and some associated with nonmetals. Also called semimetals.
What is an Ionic bond ?
A bond formed from the electrosraric attraction between ions with different charges.
What is an Ionic compound ?
Two or more elements held together by ionic bonds.
What is a Molecular compound ?
Two or more elements held together by covalent bonds.
What is a Non-polar covalent bond ?
A bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons relatively equally.
What is a Polar covalent bond ?
A Bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons, but one atom attracts the electrons more strongly, resulting in unequal sharing.
What is an Intermolecular force ?
A force between the individual molecules of a substance.
What is a Polyatomic ion ?
Two or more atoms covalently bonded together that obtain a net charge.
What is an Organic compound ?
A compound containing carbon.
What is a Hydrocarbon ?
A compound that contains hydrogen and oxygen.
What is a Polar molecule ?
A molecule with a positive and negative side, as a result of its bonds and geometry.
What is a Non-polar molecule ?
A molecule that either has symmetrical molecular geometry, or it only has non-polar covalent bonds or both.
What is an Oxidation number ?
A number indicating the charge, or the apparent charge of an atom.
What is a Molecular formula ?
A formula that represents the particles that make up a compound, as they actually exist.
What is an Empirical formula ?
A formula that shows the simplest whole number ratio for the elements that make up a compound.
What is molecular mass ?
The mass of one molecule of a substance.
What is formula mass ?
The mass of one formula unit of an ionic compound.
What is a formula unit ?
The simplest whole number ratio of cations to anions found in a compound.
What is an Anion ?
A negative ion.
What is a Cation ?
A positive ion.
What is a Chemical equation ?
A group of chemical formulas and numbers that can be used to represent a chemical reaction.
What is a Synthesis reaction ?
A chemical reaction in which two or more simpler substances form a more complex substance.
What is a Decomposition reaction ?
A chemical reaction in which a complex substance breaks up into two or more simpler substances.
What is a Single replacement reaction ?
A chemical reaction in which a freeelement replaces a similar element from a compound.
What is a Precipitate ?
A solid deposit that forms when a substance comes out of a solution.
What is an Oxidizing agent ?
The substance that appears to cause an oxidation to occur by accepting or appearing to accept electrons.
What is Oxidation ?
When a substance loses electrons, or appears to lose electrons, as its oxidation number appears to increase algebraically.
What is Reduction ?
When a substance gains electrons or appears to gain electrons, as its oxidation number is algebraically reduced.
What is a Reducing agent ?
The substance that appears to cause a reduction to occur, by donating electrons, or appears to donate electrons.
What is a Redox reaction ?
An oxidation-reduction reaction, where one substance is oxidized and another is reduced.