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26 Cards in this Set

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In the electromagnetic spectrum, what do:
c
v
(lambda)
stand for?
c = the speed of light --> [(3.00x10^8 m)/s]
v = frequency
lambda = wavelength
What is the "de Broglie equation?"
The de Broglie equation:

(lambda) = h/mv

where:
m = mass
v = velocity
h = Planck's constant --> 6.626x10^(-34) Js
What is the "quantum mechanical model?"
(Mathematical Equation)

The behavior of each election in an atom is characteized by a WAVE FUNCTION, or ORBITAL, the square of which defines the probability of finding the election in a given volume of space.

Each wave function has a set of three parameters called QUANTUM NUMBERS.
What is "Planck's Constant?"
Planck's Constant:

6.626x10^(-34) Js
What is the "Balmer-Rydberg Equation?"
Balmer-Rydberg Equation:

1/(lambda) = R[(1/m^2) - (1/n^2)]

where R(Rydberg Constant) = 1.097x10^(-2)nm(-1)
What is the electromagnetic equation for the speed of a wave?
Wavelength x Frequency = Speed

(lambda in m)[wavelength] x (v x (1/s))[frequency] = (c x (m/s))[speed]

where c = 3.00x10^8
What is " c " (or, 'the speed of light')?
The Speed Of Light:

c = 3.00x10^8 (m/s)
What is a "line spectrum?"
Line Spectrum: A series of discrete lines on an otherwise dark background as a result of light emitted by an excited atom.
What did "Johann Balmer" discover?
Johann Balmer (in 1885) discovered a mathematical relationship for the four visible lines in the atomic spectra for hydrogen:

1/(lambda) = R[(1/(2^2)) - (1/(n^2))]

where R = 1.097x10^(-2)nm^(-1) --> ("Rydberg Constant")
What did "Johannes Rydberg" discover?
Johannes Rydberg modified Balmer's equation for the four visible lines in the atomic line spectra for hydrogen to fit EVERY line in the entire spectrum of hydrogen:

1/(lambda) = R[(1/(m^2)) - (1/(n^2))]

where R = 1.097x10^(-2)nm^(-1) --> ("Rydberg Constant")
In what direction of electrons' movements to other energy orbitals is light emitted or absorbed?
It has to do with the Balance of Energy:

--> from lower wavelengths to higher wavelengths, light is emitted.
--> from higher wavelengths to lower wavelengths, light is absorbed.
What is the "Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle?"
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle: it is IMPOSSIBLE to know precisely where an electron is and what path it follows. (1927). :

((delta)x)((delta)mv) >/= (h/4(pie))
Who proposed the "quantum mechanical model" of the atom, and what does this model focus on?
Erwin Schrodinger proposed the "Quantum Mechanical Model" in 1926.
--> This model focuses on the wavelike properties of electrons.
What is the equation of a "wave function?"
wave equation --> wave function or orbital --> probability of finding elctron in a region of space
A wave function is characterized by three parameters called what?
Wave Functions are characterized by three parameters called "Quantum Numbers."
-----> The Quantum Numbers are represented by:
n,
l,
m(subscript 1)
Who proposed the "quantum mechanical model" of the atom, and what does this model focus on?
Erwin Schrodinger proposed the "Quantum Mechanical Model" in 1926.
--> This model focuses on the wavelike properties of electrons.
What is the equation of a "wave function?"
wave equation --> wave function or orbital --> probability of finding elctron in a region of space
A wave function is characterized by three parameters called what?
Wave Functions are characterized by three parameters called "Quantum Numbers."
-----> The Quantum Numbers are represented by:
n,
l,
m(subscript 1)
What are "d orbitals?"
D Orbitals: electrons that fall within the transition metals.
How would you write the "shorthand electron configuration" for P?

P: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3
Shorthand Electron configuration for P:

[Ne] 3s3 3p6
electromagnetic energy (light) is characterized by:
wavelength, frequency, amplitude
Who first developed the periodic table?
Gregor Mendeleev (1871)

----> elements organize by increasing atomic weight
What is the photoelectric effect?
Photoelectric efect: irradiation of clean metal surface with a light whose frequency is above a certain threshold will cause electrons to ve ejected from the metal
What is Niel Bohr's model of a hydrogen atom?
an elcetron circling around the proton with a variety of different quantized orbits it could jump to and from. (1914).
properties of Principal Quantum Number (n):
- describes the size and energy level of the orbital
- commonly called SHELL
- positive integer (n = 1, 2, ....)
- as the value of n increases: the energy increases and the avg distance of the e- from the nucleus increases
properties of the Angular-Momentum Quantum Number (l)
- Defines the three dimensional shape of the orbit
- commonly called SUBSHELL
- there are n different shapes for orbitals :
--> if n = 1, then l = 0
--> if n = 2, then l = 0 or 1
--> if n = 3, then l = 0, 1, or 2
---> etc.