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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
model
A simpliefied approximation of reality
Solid
The state in which a substance has a definte shape and volume at a constant temperature.
Liquid
The state in which a substance has a constant volume at a constant temperaturebut can change it's shape.
Gas
The state in which a substancecan easily change shape or volume.
Evaporation or vaporization
The conversion of a liquid to a gas.
Element
A substance that cannot be chemically converted into simpler substances; a substance in which all the atoms have the same number of protons and therefore the the same chemical characteristics.
Group or Family
All the elements in a given column on the periodic table.
Metals
The elements that (1) have a metallic luster,(2) conduct heat and electric currents well, and (3) are malleable
Malleable
capable of being extended or shaped by the blows of a hammer.
Nonmetals
The elements that do not have the characteristics of metals. some of the nonmetals are gases at room temperature , some are solids and one is a liquid. Various colors and textures occur among the nonmetals.
Metalloids or semimetals
The elements that have some but not all the characteristics of metals.
Representive or Main-group Elements
The elements in groups 1,2, and 13 through 18 on the periodic table.
Transition metals
The elements in gorups 3 through 12 on the periodic table.
Inner Transition elements
the 28 elements at the bottom of the periodic table.
Periods
The horizontal rows on the periodic table.
Atom
The smallest part of an element that retains the chemical characteristics of the element.
Atomic Mass Unit
Unit of measurement for the masses of particles; 1/12 the mass of a carbon atom that has 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons.
Proton
A postivley charged particle found in the nucleus of an atom.
Electron
A negativley charged particle found outside the nucleus of an atom.
Neutron
An uncharged particle in the nucleus of an atom.
Nucleus
The extremely small, positively charged core of an atom.
Ion
Any charged particle, whether positively charged or negatvely charged
Cation
An ion formed from and atomthat has lost one or more electrons and thus has become positively charged.
Anion
An ion formed from an atom that has gained one or more electron and thus has become negatively charged.
Isotopes
Atoms that have the same number of protons but differnet number of neutrons. They have the same atomic number but different mass numbers.
Dimensional Analysis
A general technique for doing unit conversions.
Atomic number
The number of protons in an atoms nucleus. It establishes the elements identity.
Mass number
The sum of the number of protpns and neutrons in an atom's nucleus.
Covalent bond
A link between atoms that results from their sharing two electrons.
Molecule
An uncharged collection of atoms held together with covalent bonds.
Space-filling model
A way of representing a molecule to show a somewhat realistic image of the electron-charge clouds that surround the molecule's atom.
Ball-and-Stick model
A representation of a nolecule that uses balls for atoms and sticks for covalent bonds.
Diatomic
Composed of paired atoms. The diatomic atoms are h2, N2, O2, F2
CL2, BR2, I2
Compound
A substance that contains two or more elements, the atoms of these elements always combining in the same whole-number ratio.
Chemical formula
A conise written description of the conponents of a chemical compound. It identifies the elements in the compound by their symbols and indicatesthe relative number of atoms of each element with subscripts.
Pure substances
a sample of natter that has constant composition. There are two types of pure substances, elements and compounds.
Mixture
a sample of matter that contains two or more pure substances and has variable composition.
Chemical bond
An attraction between atoms or ions in chemical compounds. Example: Ionic and covalent bonds
Polar Covalent Bonds
A covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally, leading to a partial negative charge on an atom that attracts the electrons more to a partial positive charge on the other atom.
Nonpolar Covalent bond
A covalent bond in which the difference inelectron-attracting ability of two atoms ina bond is negligible(or zero), so the atoms in the bond have no significant charges.
Ionic Bond
The attraction between a cation and an anion.
Molecular compound
A compound composed of molecules.
Ionic compound
A compund that consists of ions held together by ionic bonds.
Valence electrons
The electrons that are most important in the formation of chemical bonds. The number of valence electrons for the atoms of an element is equal to the elements A-group on the periodic table.
Electron-dot Symbol
A representation of an atom that consists of it's elementsl symbol surrounded by dots representing it's valence electrons.
Lewis Structure
A representation of a molecule that consists of the elemental symbol for each atom in the molecule, lines to show covalent bonds, and pairs of dots to indicate lone pairs.
Lone Pair
Two electrons that are not involved in the covalent bonds between atoms but are important for explaning the arrangement of atoms in molecules. They are represented by pairs of dots in the Lewis strucutres.
Hydrocarbons
Compounds that are composed of only carbona dn hydrogen.
Organic Chemistry
The branch of chemistry that involves the study of carbon based compounds.
Double bond
A link between atoms that results from the sharing of four electrons. It can be viewed as two 2-electron covalent bonds.
Triple bonds
A link between atoms that results from the sharing of six electrons. It can be viewed as three 2-electron covalent bonds.
Alcohols
Compounds that contain a hydrocarbon group with one or more -OH groups attached
Tetrahedral
The molecular shape that keeps the negative charge of four electron groups as far apart as possible. This shape has angles of 109.5 degrees between the atoms.
Bond Angle
The angle formed by straight lines (representing bonds) connecting the nuceli of three adjacent atoms.
Conversion factor
A ration that describes the relationship between 2 units.
Binary covalent bond compound
A compund that consists of two nonmetallic elements.
Monatomic anions
Negatively charged particles such as CL-, O2- and N3
Monatomic cations
Potively charged particles such as NA+2, Ca2+ and AL3+ that contain single atoms with a positive charge.
Polyatomic ion
A charged collection of atoms held together by covalent bonds.
Binary ionic compound
An ionic compound whose formula contains one sybmols for a metal and one symbol for a nonmetal.
Akali Metals
Column 1 or 1A
Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rb, Cs, Fr,