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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space and basically makes up the universe.
Solid
has definite shape and volume
Liquid
has definite volume, changeable shape
Gas
has changeable shape and volume
Energy
The capacity to do work (put matter into motion)
Kinetic
energy in action
Potential –
energy of position; stored (inactive)
Chemical
– stored in the bonds of chemical substances
Electrical
– results from the movement of charged particles
Mechanical
– directly involved in moving matter
Radiant or electromagnetic –
energy traveling in waves (i.e., visible light, ultraviolet light, and X rays)
Energy is easily converted from one form to another
Ture or false?
True
During conversion, some energy is “lost” as sound.
true or false
False- energy is lost through Heat
The composition of matter is comes in what two basic properity?
Atoms and elements
Elements
– unique substances that cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means
Atoms –
more-or-less identical building blocks for each element
Atomic symbol
– one- or two-letter chemical shorthand for each element
elements as a whole have similar physical and chemical properties
True or false?
False: Each element has unique physical and chemical properties
Physical properties
– those detected with our senses
Chemical properties
– pertain to the way atoms interact with one another
what are the 4 Major Elements of the Human Body?
Oxygen (O)
Carbon (C)
Hydrogen (H)
Nitrogen (N)
What elements make up 3.9% True or False?
Lesser elements
Lesser elements make up 3.9% of the body and include:
Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur (S), sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl), magnesium (Mg), iodine (I), and iron (Fe)
what elements make up less than 0.01% of the body and are required in minute amounts, and are found as part of enzymes
Trace elements
Atomic Structure:
The nucleus consists of
neutrons and protons
Atomic Structure: These have no charge and a mass of one atomic mass unit (amu)
Neutrons–
Atomic Structure: these have a positive charge and a mass of 1 amu
Protons
Electrons are found orbiting the nucleus. true or false?
True
These have a negative charge and 1/2000 the mass of a proton (0 amu)
Electrons –
Name 2 Models of the Atom
Planetary Model and
Orbital Model –
what atom model shows that electrons move around the nucleus in fixed, circular orbits
Planetary Model –
What atom model shows regions around the nucleus in which electrons are most likely to be found
Orbital Model –
Molecule –
two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
Compound –
two or more different kinds of atoms chemically bonded together
two or more components physically intermixed (not chemically bonded)
Mixtures –
Hydrogen
what's this element?
hellum (He)
what's this element?
lithium (Li)
what's this element?
deutrium
what is this element?
Tritium
What is this element?
– substance present in greatest amount
Solvent
substance(s) present in smaller amounts
Solute –
homogeneous mixtures of components
Solutions –
Concentration of Solutions is measured by?
1. Percent, or parts per 100 parts
2. Molarity, or moles per liter (M)
A mole of an element or compound is equal to its atomic or molecular weight (sum of atomic weights) in liters
true or false?
False, its measured in grams
name 2 heterogeneous mixtures whose solutes do not settle out
Suspensions and
Colloids, or emulsions,
Colloids, or emulsions, and Suspensions are heterogeneous mixtures with visible solutes that tend to settle out

True or false?
True
True or false:
Only chemical bonding takes place in mixtures
False NO chemical bonding takes place in mixtures
T or F: Most mixtures can be separated by physical means
True All compounds are homogeneous
T or F: Mixtures are heterogeneous but not homogeneous
False: Mixtures can be BOTH heterogeneous or homogeneous
T o F: Compounds cannot be separated by physical means
True
T or F: All compounds are homogeneous
True
T or F: Bonds surround the nucleus of an atom
false: Electron shells, or energy levels, surround the nucleus of an atom
T or F: Electron shells, or energy levels are formed using the electrons in the outermost energy level
false: Bonds are formed using the electrons in the outermost energy level
what is the outermost energy level containing chemically active electrons
a Valence shell –
a single Covalent bond
what kind of bond is this?
a double Covalent bond
what kind of bond is this?
a triple Covalent bond
what kind of bond is this?
formation of an ionic bond
what does this picture represent?
Valence shell –
outermost energy level containing chemically active electrons
except for the first shell which is full with two electrons, atoms interact in a manner to have eight electrons in their valence shell
Octet rule –
Name the three Types of Chemical Bonds
Ionic
Covalent
Hydrogen
Ions, Anions and Cations are examples of?
Ionic Bonds
Ions are ?
charged atoms resulting from the gain or loss of electrons
Anions have ?
gained one or more electrons
Cations have ?
lost one or more electrons
t or F: Ionic bonds form between atoms by the transfer of one or more electrons?
true
T or F: Ionic compounds form crystals instead of individual molecules?
true
give an Example of an ionic compound
NaCl (sodium chloride)
Covalent bonds are formed by ?
the sharing of two or more electrons
Electron sharing produces?
molecules
Electrons shared equally between atoms produce
nonpolar molecules
Unequal sharing of electrons produces
polar molecules
Atoms with six or seven valence shell electrons are
electronegative
Atoms with one or two valence shell electrons are
electropositive
T or F: Reactive elements do not have their outermost energy level fully occupied by electrons
True
T or F:Inert elements do have their outermost energy level fully occupied by electrons
true
name 4 characteristics of hydogen bond
1. Too weak to bind atoms together
2. Common in dipoles such as water
3. Responsible for surface tension in water
4. Important as intramolecular bonds, giving the molecule a three-dimensional shape
Name 2 facts about Chemical Reactions
1. Occur when chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken
2. Are written in symbolic form using chemical equations