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164 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What's a state party?
* Government or entity of law
* Use CW against a formal target - MILITARY
* Well-defined programs (US, Russia)
What is a terrorist?
* Want you to think you're next
* Want you to change your behavior
* Less-defined programs
What makes a good CW agent?
* Strong physiological effect
* Strong psychological effect
* Inexpensive and easy to make
* Resists countermeasures - hard to detect, resists decontamination
Progressive toxicity
Toxic gases
Blister agents
Nerve agents
Toxic chemicals
Chlorine gas
* Yellow-green gas
* Reacts with water --> HCl and oxygen radicals
* Pungent odor
* Many commercial uses
* Heavy, creeps along the ground
* Kills, blinds
What are stokes rounds?
Rounds filled with chlorine gas
* Creeps along ground
* Thick liquid
* Blister agent
* Delayed effects
* Nitrogen mustard freezes in cold, so you can't use in the cold.
* Mix of isomers (cis and trans)
* Vessicant - blistering agent
* Immediate pain
* Breaks down rapidly
* Sensitive to water
* Mixes well with mustards - lowers the freezing point so you can use in the cold
What is the general structure for G agents?
G agents
* Gave way to V agents
V agents
* Nerve agents
* Stronger than G agents
* Castor bean extract
* 2 proteins linked by disulfide bridge
* Inhibits protein synthesis
* Destroyed by heat and oxidation with chlorine
* Assassinations
What is a unitary agent?
An agent that is effective as it is.
What is a binary agent?
An agent that requires two parts to be put together to be effective.
-ate, -oate, -ide
What are the 3 forms of nomenclature used?
* Common
* Trivial
* Based on Cahn-Ingold-Prelog (CIP) priority
* Can be used by anyone, anywhere, anytime
* Evolves
Common nomenclature
* He who discovers it can name it
* Varies from discipline to discipline
* Not systematic
* Does not evolve
Trivial nomenclature
* Chemical nicknames
* Regional
* Not systematic, but descriptive
* Does not evolve
Examples of gasses
Bromine (CA)
Chlorine (CL)
Methyl bromide
Methyl isocyanate
Phosgene (CG)
Diphosgene (DP)
Phosphorus, elemental, white or yellow
Sulfuryl fluoride
Examples of cyanides
Arsine (SA)
Carbon monoxide
Cyanogen chloride (CK)
Hydrogen cyanide (AC)
Potassium cyanide (KCN)
Sodium cyanide (NaCN)
Sodium monofluoroacetate (compound 1080)
Examples of mustards
Nitrogen mustard
Sulfur mustard
Distilled mustard (HD)
Mustard/Lewisite (HL)
Examples of G-agents
* Phosphate, phosphonate, phosphofluoridate
* Acetylcholine
* Carbamate
Nitrogen mustard
* Thick liquid
* Blister agent
* Delayed effects
Examples of V-agents
* Sulfur, instead of oxygen
* Amiton
* VX
* Russian V
Examples of incapacitating agents
* 3-Quinuclidinyl Benzilate (BZ)
* Fentanyl
Sulfur mustard
* Thick liquid
* Blistering agent
* Delayed effects
Examples of vomiting agents
* Adamsite
Examples of bleeding agents
* Warfarin
Examples of riot control agents
Bromobenzylcyanide (CA)
Chloroacetophenone (CN)
Chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile (CS)
Chloropicrin (PS)
Dibenzoxazephine (CR)
Examples of biotoxins
* Abrin
* Brevetoxin
* Colchicene
* Digitalis
* Nicotine
* Ricin
* Saxitoxin
* Strychnine
* Tetrodotoxin
* Trichothecene
Examples of new agents
* Novochuks
* New riot control agents
* Super-vomiting agents
Why use an incapacitating agent?
* This type of agent makes people sick or unable to retaliate
* Want people around for some reason
* The dead are not a negotiating tool
Why use a lethal agent?
* This type of agent kills people
* You don't need the people or want to take care of them
* They are expendable
Classes of agents
* Incapacitating agents - BZ, vomiting agents
* Riot control agents (RCAs) - lacrimators, pepper spray
* Pulmonary agents - ammonia, chlorine
* Vessicants - mustards, Lewisites
* Blood agents - cyanides - prevent ability to carry oxygen
* Nerve agents - sarin, VX
* Super agents
What is votility?
* Tendency of liquid to gasize
* Phase determines route of exposure
What is persistence?
* Amount of time agent will dwell on terrain or objects
* Sensitivity to light, water
* Mixing with thickening agents makes agent last longer
What is chemical exposure?
* How much you're exposed to for how long
* Time and concentration
Routes of exposure
* Inhalation
* On skin
* Through skin
* Ingestion
* Injection
* Fumes
Phases for inhalation
* Gas
* Liquid (turns into gas)
Phases to expose on skin
* Gas
* Liquid
* Solid - inefficient - throw weight, can duck
Phases to expose through skin
* Gas
* Liquid
* Phases for ingestion
* Liquid
* Solid
* Phases for injection
* Liquid - easy for animals
* Phases for fumes
* Mixture of particles and gas
* < 10 microns goes deep in lungs
What phase are most nerve agents?
* Liquids, not gasses
* Sarin (GB) - non-persistent vapor/liquid
* VX - persistent liquid
* Penetrates skin, eyes, lungs
What is cholinergic crisis?
* Nerve agents block acetylcholine esterase, which ends signaling
* Nerves keep firing
What are the effects of nerve agents on muscarinic sites?
* Increase secretions: saliva, tears, runny nose, in airways and GI, sweating
* Smooth muscle contraction
- Eyes constricted - narrow pupils
- Airway constriction
- Intestinal hyperactivity - nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
Effects of nerve agents on nicotinic sites
* Skeletal muscles - fasciculations, twitching, weakness, flaccid paralysis
* Ganglion - tachycardia, hypertension
Acute effects of nerve agents on CNS
* Acute: loss of consciousness, convulsions, apnea
What happens when you inhale a nerve agent?
* Vapor effects occur within seconds, peak within minutes
* Low exposure: miosis (dim vision, eye pain), runny nose, shortness of breath
* High exposure: immediate loss of consciousness, seizures, apnea, flaccid paralysis
What happens with liquid skin exposure of a nerve agent?
* Small amounts - localized sweating, fasciculations
* Moderate amounts (< LD50) - GI effects
* Large amounts (LD50) - sudden loss of consciousness, seizures, apnea
Prolonged effects of nerve agents on CNS
* Prolonged: psychological effects (4-6 weeks), cognition deficits (e.g., short term memory)
Effects of low exposure nerve agent inhalation
* Low exposure: miosis (dim vision, eye pain), runny nose, shortness of breath
Effects of high exposure nerve agent inhalation
* High exposure: immediate loss of consciousness, seizures, apnea, flaccid paralysis
Nerve agent factors
* Buddy protection
* Masks
* Suits
Nerve agent treatment
* ABCs - mostly As
* Antidoes - atropine, 2-PAMCI, diazepam (valium)
* Don't reverse poisoning
* Buy time
Using atropine
* Antagonizes muscarine effects
* Dries secretions, relaxes smooth muscles
* Administer by injection or down endotracheal tube
* Symptoms of atropine poison - dry secretions, reddening, confusion, increased heart rate
Pralidoxime chloride (2-PAMCI)
* Pulls agent from acetylcholine esterase in absence of aging
* Helps nicotinic sites
* Use less atropine
What is aging?
Some organophosphates physically damage acetylcholine esterase and if removed, the enzyme won't function properly
* Through pants
* Use atropine first
* Pyridostymine
* Autoinjector
* Give when you think there will be a chemical attack
* Blocks nerve agents from binding to acetylcholine
Examples of vessicants
* Military - sulfur mustard, nitrogen mustard, Lewisite
* Poison ivy
* Chemicals
* Chemotherapy agents
* Sunlight
* Riot control agents
Structure of sulfur mustard
Cl - C - C - S - C - C - Cl
Structure of nitrogen mustard
Cl - C - C - N - C - C - Cl
The threat of vessicants
* Vapor, liquid
* Topical eye, skin, airway damage - same on inside
* Latent period between exposure and effect
* Symptomatic treatment
* System poison - can damage bone marrow
Effects of mustard
* Chemical cell damage in 1-2 minutes
* Clinical effects in 2-48 hours, often 4-8 hours
* Cyclizes in tissues
* DNA damage, cell death
* May go after eyes, respiratory tract
Effects of vessicants on skin
* Erythema
* Small vesicles grow and coalesce into large ones
* Blisters
* Possible coagulating necrosis with liquids
Effects of vessicants on airways
* Lower - dyspnea, productive cough
* Mid - larynx, hoarseness
* Upper - nose bleed, sore throat, hacking cough
* Rarely pulmonary edema
Effects of vessicants on GI tract and bones
* Damages stem cells
* Decrease white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets (decreased clotting)
- Survival rare if WBC < 200
- Greater risk for infection
* Ruins intestinal tract within 24 hours
* Tissue destruction after 3-5 days
Decontamination of vessicants
* Part of supportive treatment
* Physical removal of agent - cut off clothes, flush skin
* Won't prevent sickness
* Will prevent cross-contamination
Treatment of vessicants
* Cover eyes
* Reassure victim
* Oxygen - intubation
* Bronchiodialators
Effects of Lewisite
* Similar to sulfur mustard
* Immediate burning of eyes, skin, airway - injures all
* No bone marrow effects
Treatment of Lewisite
* 1st: Self protection
* Immediate decontamination
* British anti-Lewisite agent (BAL) - antidote for systemic effects of poisoning
* Widely used in industries
* Byproduct of burning some synthetic materials
* Comes as salts or HCN gas
* Must be delivered in large amounts --> death
* Natural in pits of stone fruits and some nuts
5-10 ppm cyanide causes?
10-50 ppm cyanide causes?
100 ppm cyanide causes?
Death in 1 hour
300 ppm cyanide causes?
Death instantly
Effects of small amounts of cyanide
* Metabolized and excreted
* Blood pressure drugs
Effects of non-lethal concentrations
* Anxiety
* Hyperventilation
* Headache, dizziness, vomiting
* Flushed or red skin
* Symptoms improve when source is removed
Effects of lethal concentrations (inhaled) of cyanide
* Binds to iron in mitochondria - prevents cells from using oxygen
* Cells die starting with brain and heart
* 0-15s anxiety, hyperventilation
* 0-30s seizures
* 3-5min breathing stops
* 6-10min asystole/death
* Normal or dilated pupils, absence of cyanosis
Treatment of cyanide
* Remove from area
* Remove clothing
* If conscious and breathing, give oxygen and observe
* If unconscious, give oxygen and provide airway management via mechanic resuscitation
Pulmonary intoxicants - phosgene
* Colorless gas - white when mixed with water
* Freshly cut grass
* 4x heavier than air
* Gas above 47F
* Dyes, pesticides, pharmaceutical industry
Effects of phosgene inhalation
* Transient cough
* Mixes with water in lung --> HCl and carbon dioxide
* Irritates eyes, nose, throat, upper airways
* May be asymptomatic for 2-24 hours
Treatment of phosgene
* ABCs - mostly As
* Remove from source
* Remove clothing
* No exertion - makes lungs, symptoms worse
* Colorless, water-soluble gas
* Basic
* Strong odor
* Commercial uses: dyes, plastics, fertilizers, explosives
Effects of ammonia
* Rapidly absorbed by mucosal surfaces
* Corrosive when mixed with water
* Household ammonia < pH 12 --> less damage
* Anhydrous ammonia > pH 12 - extensive damage
* Eyes - burning, severe pain, injury to cornea and lens
* Skin - pain, blistering, deep burns
* Lungs - mild exposure: cough, chest pain, wheezing, laryngitis
- Severe exposure: hypoxia, chemical pneumonia, internal hemorrhaging
* GI - mouth pain, cough to edema of lips and mouth, esophageal strictures
Treatment of ammonia
* Remove from exposure
* Decontaminate prior to transport
* Irrigate eyes
* Early intubation
Effects of chlorine
* Eye irritation, cough, wheezing
* 12-24 hours later 0 non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema
* Sudden death due to hypoxia
Treatment of chlorine
* Remove from source
* ABCs - mostly As
* Flush skin and eyes with water
* Oxygen, cool mist, bronchodilator
* Assess hydration
Effects of 3-Quinuclidinyl Benzilate (BZ)
* Affects people in different ways
* They know they're not thinking right
* Not hostile, but confused
* Incapacitating agent
* Knocks you down
Why are bleeding agents (warfarin) hard to weaponize?
* Can't gas troops
* Loaded into hollow-point bullets - lead bullets open upon impact
- Coating bullet ineffective - can't introduce enough agent into body
- Burns off and some lost in air
* Bullet does more damage
Purpose of riot control agents
* Confuse people
* People won't see medical attention
* Some lacrimators
What are Novochuks?
* Mostly deadly binary nerve agents
* Prevents breakdown of acetylcholine --> continues muscle stimulation
* Can't recover with atropine or antidote
Examples of chemical facilities
* Pharmaceuticals - make smaller doses of "poisons"
* Soaps and cleansers - small facility
* Industrial inorganic chemicals - pesticides (WMD for bugs)
* Universities - transfer packages
* Printing inks - personnel equipment
Industrial chemicals that terrorists can use to make CWs
* Ammonia
* Chlorine
* HCl
* Sulfuric acid
* Organophosphate pesticides
* Organic peroxides
* Unstable, combus
* Time-delay detonator
Organophosphate pesticides
* Very low LD 50
* Very easy to make
Small-scale facilities
* "Good enough" labs
* Buy equipment at regular stores
* Lousy to make CW
* Multipurpose
* Large quantities
* Mass production
* Constant
Material movement
* Gravity
* Pressure
* Vacuum
* Pumps
* Lower explosive limit than peroxides
* Mix with air to ignite
* Keeps it at constant temperature
* Mixes solvents better (might take 24 hours for reaction)
Batch plants
* More watched
* Well suited for changing the end product
* Slip stream - divert chemicals from main process
Carbon steel plants
Glass-lined steel plants
* Can't use fluorine in these
* High nickel will stop this, but it's expensive
Stainless steel plants
* Fine, as long as no wet bromides
* Corrosive
Pass through
Differences in pressure between walls
Definition of a chemical weapon
* Toxic chemicals and their precursors
* Munitions and devices
* Any equipment designed for use directly in connection with munitions and devices
Article III: Must take inventory within how many days of change of CWC?
30 days
Article VII
National Implementation Measures
* Must implement CWC, not just sign it
* Can't take part in anything prohibited by CWC
Article V Must declare all facilities within how many days of ratifying the CWC?
90 days
Article V: Single small-scale production facilities
* May have these
* Makes < 100g/year - used for defense, testing purposes
Article V: Converting facilities
* May convert facility if you can't convert it back
* ONLY destroy CM - no other function
Article VI: Activities not prohibited
* Allowed to acquire, transfer, produce, etc. tchemicals for purposes not prohibited
* Defensive testing - subject to verification
* Must document transfer
Article VIII - technical secretariat
* Person in charge
* Supervises on technical questions
* Appointed
Schedule 1
* If it's not on the list but should, it's on
* Any lethal/incapacitating agent that can be used as CW
* Any precursor
* NO legitimate uses
Schedule 2
* Poses significant risk
* Not produced in large commercial quantities for purposes not prohibited in CWC
* Not very useful in anything other than CW
Schedule 3
* Was stockpiled as CW
* Less significant risk
* Produced in large commercial quantitites
* Commercial or CW
* Legitimate uses
* In CWC
* Everything you need to know about that chemical
Schedule 2 agents
* Not chemical weapons
* Salts - for nerve agents
Article I
General Obligations
* Destroy
Part IV Destruction of Chemical Weapons and Its Verification Pursuant to Article IV
* How they check up on you
Article II
Definitions and Criteria
Article III
* CW, old CW, facilities it owns
* Locations and inventory
Annex on Implementation and Verification
Where the secretariat derives his ability to do things
Annex Part I
Defines what can and can't be inspected
Alternative perimeter
Perimeter specified by the state party as an alternative to the requested perimeter
Requested perimeter
The perimeter designated in the inspection confirmation.
Agree perimeter
Final perimeter as agreed in negotiations between inspection team and state party.
Declared perimeter
The external boundary of the facility declared
Point of entry/exit
Airport you arrive at/depart from in country
Notification of inspection
Must tell country what type of inspection, point of entry, means, ETA, perimeter, names of all associated people/parties
CWC inspection process
* Determine perimeter
* Approved equipment
* Notification
* Analyze samples within country
* Debrief country what you found within 24 hours
* File report with Hague and leave
Deadline: within 2 years of CWC ratification
1% must be destroyed
Deadline: within 3 years of CWC ratification
> 1% must be destroyed
Deadline: within 5 years of CWC ratification
> 20% must be destroyed
Deadline: within 10 years of CWC ratification
All must be destroyed
Annex Part V
Destruction of Chemical Weapons Production Facilities and Its Verification Pursuant to Article V
* Submit your plan for destruction, update annually
* Can't save any part of the facility
* Order of destruction: Schedule 1 first, from most toxic to least toxic
Annex Part VI
Activities Not Prohibited Under This Convention In Accordance with Article VI
* Allowed SSPF - no more than 100
* up to 100g for research, etc. outside of SSPF
* Declare SSPF and specifics
Annex on the Protection of Confidential Information ("Confidentiality Annex")
A. General Principles for Handling of Confidential Information
B. Employment and Conduct of Personnel in Technical Secretariat
C. Measures to Protect Sensitive Installations and Prevent Disclosure of Confidential Data in Course of On-Site Verification Activities
D. Procedures in Case of Breaches/Alleges Breaches of Confidentiality
Article IV
Chemical Weapons
* What each State Party must do with CW
* Includes devices used to disperse CW prohibited by CWC (something whose sole purpose is for CW)
Article V
Chemical Weapons Production Facilities
* Must declare all facilities within 90 days
* Production, filling, capacity, storage, destruction
* Until greenfield is verified
* May have SSPF
* May convert facilities
* Each party must pay for own destruction
Article VIII
The Organization
* General organization of CWC
* The Hague, The Netherlands
* Establishes technical secretariat
Article IX
Consultations, Cooperation and Fact-finding
* Procedures for challenge inspections
Article X
Assistance and Protection Against Chemical Weapons
Annex on Chemicals
A. Guidelines on Schedules of Chemicals (definitions)
B. Schedules of Chemicals (tables)
Verification Annex Part I ~
Article II Definitions and Criteria
Verification Annex Part IV A ~
Article III Declarations
Verification Annex Part V ~
Article III Declarations
Article V Chemical Weapons Production Facilities
Verification Annex Part VI ~
Article VI Activities Not Prohibited
Verification Annex Part VII ~
Article VI
Verification Annex Part I
Verification Annex Part II
General Rules of Verification
Verification Annex Part IV A
Destruction of Chemical Weapons and Its Verification Pursuant to Article IV: Declarations
Verification Annex Part V
Destruction of Chemical Weapons Production Facilities and Its Verification Pursuant to Article V
Verification Annex Part VI & VII
Activities Not Prohibited Under this Convention In Accordance with Article VI: Schedules 1 and 2
Verification Annex Part X
Challenge Inspections Pursuant to Article IX
Verification Annex X ~
Article IX Consultations, Cooperation, and Fact-finding