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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
__________is an ionic compound that breaks apart when dissolved
Electrolyte
_______ _________ occurs when new bonds form and/or old bonds break between atoms
Chemical reaction
Types of energy
1. Kinetic Energy
2. Potential Energy
the energy of matter in motion
Kinetic energy
energy stored by matter due to its position
Potential energy
_________ _________ is a form of potential energy that is stored in the bonds of molecules
Chemical energy
_________ _______/_____ is a process by which 2 or more atoms, ions or molecules combine to form new and larger molecules
*Ex. A + B = AB
Synthesis reactions/anabolism
_________ _______/_____ is a molecule is split apart
*Ex. AB  A + B
Decomposition Reactions/catabolism
______ _________ is the reaction can go in either direction under different conditions
Reversible reactions
Inorganic compounds
in general lack Carbon, are structurally simple and are held together by ionic or covalent bonds
*Ex. Water, salts, acids, CO2, HCO3-
Inorganic Compounds
•Water
•Acids
•Bases
•Salts
•Acidic Solution
•Basic/Alkaline solution
_______ is vital compound for life
Water
_______is a substances that break apart or dissociate into one or more Hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
Acids
_______is a substances that dissociate into one or more hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water
Bases
_______is a dissociate into both + and – ions in water, neither is H+ or OH-
Salts
________ _________ is a solution that has more H+ than OH- (pH below 7)
Acidic Solution
______/_________ _________ is a solution that has more OH- than H+ (pH above 7)
Basic/Alkaline solution
*An excellent solvent
*Participates in chemical reactions  hydrolysis
*Absorbs and releases heat very slowly
*Requires are large amount of heat to change from a liquid to a gas
*Serves as a lubricant
Water
Organic Compounds
1.Carbohydrates (“sugars”)
2.Lipids
3.Waxes
4.Phospholipids
Carbohydrates characteristics?
*important fuel molecules
*lots of energy stored in the C-H bonds
*H & O occur in same ratio as water 2:1
What are the three major groups of Carbohydrates?
• Monosaccharides
• Disaccharides
• Polysaccharides
*Building blocks of carbohydrates
*6-C sugars: energy Glucose
*5-C sugars: Nucleic Acids as Ribose & Deoxyribose
Monosaccharides
*More stable than monosaccharides
*Good molecule to transport
*Sucrose
*Lactose
Disaccharides
*more than 2 monosacc. joined together
*in this form they are insoluble and make good molecules for storing energy
*Most are long chains of the same simple sugars
Polysaccharides
*Fat-like substances that are soluble in organic solvents like alcohols or insoluble in H2O – nonpolar or hydrophobic
*Used to store energy for long periods of time
*Have more energy per gram than carbohydrates or proteins due to more C-H bonds
*Triglycerides: Oils and Fats
Lipids
*a glycerin molecule with 3 fatty acids attached
*most (95%) dietary fat is triglycerides
*Adipose tissue
*Fatty acids
Triglycerides
Saturated fatty acids characteristics
*has as many H atoms as possible
*can “nestle” close together.
*Thus solid at room temperature
*animal fat (meat, dairy products, eggs)
*nuts, coconut oil, palm oil
*thought to lead to artherosclerosis
Unsaturated fatty acids characteristics
*has double bonds between carbon atoms
*kinky structure that keeps molecules apart
*Thus, liquid at room temperature
*most vegetable oils
*thought to be best for human consumption