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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
chemical reaction
process by which substances change to produce new substances w/ new chemical/physical properties
solid that is produced as a result to a chemical reaction in solution
What are the signs of a chemical reaction?
-precipitate formed
-gas formation
-color/odor change
-energy change [(gained/lost) light, thermal, electricity]
chemical bond
force that holds two atoms in a molecule
How do new substances form in a chemical reaction?
-bonds are broken
-atoms are rearranged
-new bonds are formed
chemical formula
a combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance
number put below and to the right of a symbol
What are the prefixes used in chemical names?
1 - mono
2 - di
3 - tri
4 - tetra
5 - penta
6 - hexa
7 - hepta
8 - octa
9 - nona
10 - deca
chemical equation
a representation of a chemical reaction that uses symbols to show the relationship between reactants and products
starting materials in a chemcial reaction
substances formed from a chemical reaction
law of conservation of mass
law that states that mass can not be created or destroyed in ordinary chemical/physical changes
number placed in front of a chemical symbol or formula
With what kind of molecule do you add prefixes to the first word?
covalent compounds
synthesis reaction
a chemical reaction in which 2 or more substances combine to form a new coumpound
decomposition reaction
a chemical reaction in which a single compund is broken down to form 2 or more simpler substances
single-displacement reaction
a chemical reactionin which one element replaces another element in a compound
double-displacement reaction
a chemical reaction in which ions from 2 compounds exchange places
Which element is displaced in a single-diplacement reaction?
a less reactive element is displaced by a more reactive element in a compound
exothermic reaction
a chemical reaction in which energy is released
endothermic reaction
a chemical reaction in which energy is absorbed
law of conservation of energy
law that states energy cannot be created or destroyed
In an exothermic reaction, where was the energy released originally stored?
in the chemical bonds in the reactants
In an endothermic reaction, where is the energy absorbed stored?
in the chemical bonds in the products
rate of a reaction
speed at which new particles form
activation energy
the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
Examples of activation energy
friction (and match), light, spark of electricity
what are some factors affecting rates of reactions?
-temperature (higher temps make particles accelerate and collide forcefully)
-concentration (high, more reactant particles in given volume)
-surface area (grinding to power increases amount of reactant being exposed to other reactant particles)
When is the only time a reaction can take place?
if the particles of reactants collide
a substance that slows down or stops a chemical reaction
a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction wihtout being used up or changed