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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
overal reaction of chemical reactions
may either release energy or absorb energy
exergonic reactions
release more energy than they absorb
endergonic reactions
absorb more energy than they release
What is the connection between exergonic reactions and endergonic reactions?
Key feature of metabloism is the coupling of exergonic and endergonic reactions; energy released from an exergonic reaction often is used to drive an endergonic one
When do exergonic reactions occur?
Exergonic reactions occur as nutrients, such as glucose, are broken down; energy released as may be trapped in covalen bonds of adenosine triphosphate ATP
What happens to the energy trapped by ATP molecules?
The energy transferred to ATP molecules is used to drive endergonic reactions needed to build body structres (muscles, bones)
What does the energy in ATP do?
The energy in ATP is also used to do the mechanical work involved in the contraction of muscle or the movement of substances into or out of cells.
Activation energy
the collision energy needed to break the chemical bonds of the reactants; atoms, ions, & molecules move due to kinetic energy
How does initial energy (activation energy) work?
reactants must absorb enough energy for their chemical bonds to become unstable and their valence electrons to form new combinations--as new bonds form, energy is released to the surroundings
What influences the chance that a collision will occur and cause a chemical reaction?
the concentration of particles and the temperature
How does concentration influence chemical reactions?
the more particles of matter present in a confined space, the greater the chance that they will collide; pressur on the space increase which forces the particlea closer together so that they collide more often
How does temperature influence chemical reactions?
as temperature rises, particles of matter move more rapidly; higher temp causes particles to collide more forcibly
True or false?
Body temperature and the concentrations of molecules in body fluids are far too low for most chemical reactions to occur rapidly enough to maintain life.
How is the problem of low body temperature and low concentration solved?
By utilizing catalysts
chemical compounds that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy needed for a reaction to occur
How does a catalyst work in a chemical reaction?
a catalyst does not alter the difference in poteneial energy between the reactants and the products. It lowers the amount of energy needed to start the reaction.
True or false?
An enzyme catalyst can only be used once.
False. The catalyst is unchanged at the end of the reaction. A single catalyst molecule can assist one chemical reation after another.
Name an enzyme catalyst.
Lactose (milk sugar)