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19 Cards in this Set

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acute-phase
In response to injury, ____________ _______ proteins(complement, cytokine, fibrogen and kinins) are activated and their concentration increases.

e.g. a localized infection
Vasodilation
increase the diameter of B.V.
Injured tissues release: histamine, kinins, prostaglandins, leukotrienes.

These substances dilate (increase the diameter) of blood vessels.

Redness and heat

Increased permability

Margination and emigration/ diapedesis of WBCs

Increased WBCs at site of injury.

PMNs reach site first (short lived)

Monocytes reach site within 24 hr. (longer lived)
Leukotrienes
mediate allergies and asthma
Increased permeability by vasodilation in imflammatory response
Margination and emigration/ diapedesis of WBCs

Increased WBCs at site of injury.

PMNs reach site first (short lived)

Monocytes reach site within 24 hr. (longer lived)
PMNs
They are small and eat themselves to death.
Monocytes
clean up crew
Swelling/Edema
Increased flow of fluid from blood to tissue spaces.
Tissue repair
The final stage of inflammation. Begins during the active phase of inflammation.
Fever
systemic inflammation
systemic increase in body temperature
Endogenous Pyrogens
Interleukin 1
IL-1 and alpha tumor necrosis factor
Secreted by WBCs (monocytes and macrophages)
Act on the hypothalamus (body's thermastat) Hypothalamus releases prostaglandins (fatigue and tired)
Increase in body temp.
Speeds up body's chemical reactions
Decrease available iron.
When IL-1 is eliminated, body temp falls (crisis)
Endogenous Pyrogens
Interleukin 1
IL-1 and alpha tumor necrosis factor
Secreted by WBCs (monocytes and macrophages)
Act on the hypothalamus (body's thermastat) Hypothalamus releases prostaglandins (fatigue and tired)
Increase in body temp.
Speeds up body's chemical reactions
Decrease available iron.
When IL-1 is eliminated, body temp falls (crisis)
The complement system
very nonspecific
A group of over 30 proteins found in the blood.
Complements antigen antibody reactions. Binds to immune complexes. (It doesn't care which antibodies and antigens it is. It will lyse the cell.)
Cell lysis

WBCs chemotaxis

Opsonization or immune adherance

Inflammation
What are several functions of the complement system?
Cell lysis
One of the functions of the complement system.

Membrane attack complex

punching holes in cell membrane
WBCs chemotaxis
One of the functions of the complement system.

Attracts phagocytes
Opsonization or immune adherance
One of the functions of the complement system.

Enhanced phagocytosis
Interferons
IFNs
Interferons
Interfere with viral replication
Alpha IFN and Beta IFN: cause cells to produce antiviral proteins that inhibit viral replication

Gamma IFN: Increases the activity of neutrophils and macrophages primarily in phagocytizing bacteria.
Alpha IFN and Beta IFN
cause cells to produce antiviral proteins that inhibit viral replication
Gamma IFN
Increases the activity of neutrophils and macrophages primarily in phagocytizing bacteria.