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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
chemical bonds
forces that hold together the atoms of a molecule or a compound
valence shell
the outermost shell in an atom
chemically stable
an atom with a valence shell holding eight electron; unlikely to form chemical bonds with other atoms; Ex: neon
octet rule
when two or more atoms can interact in ways that produce a chemically stable arrangement of eight valence electrons for each atom
ionic bond
the force of attraction that holds together ions with oopposite charges; Ex: sodium and chlorine
positively charged ion; when the total number of protons exceeds the number of electrons
when the total number of electrons exceeds the number of protons after gaining an electron
an ionic compound that breaks apart into positive and negative ions in solution; help conduct an electrical charge through cells
covalent bonds
when two or more atoms share electrons rather than gaining or losing them; Ex: hydrogen atoms H-H H2, share 1 electron each; oxygen atoms O=O O2 each share 2 electrons; water
single covalent bond
when two atoms share one electron pair H2 H-H
double covalent bond
when two atoms share two pairs of electrons O2 O=O
triple covalent bond
when two atoms share three pairs of electrons nitrogen
nonpolar covalent bond
two atoms share the electrons equally--one atom does not attract the shared electrons more strongly than the other atom (different atoms)
polar covalent bond
when the sharing of electrons between two atoms is unequal--the nucleus of one atom attracts the shared electrons more strongly than the nucleus of the other atom
the poser to attract electrons to itself
hydrogen bond
forms when a hydrogen atom with a partial positive charge attracts the partical negative charge of neighboring electronegative atoms--weak when compared to ionic and covalent bonds
the tendency of like particles to stay together (water surface)
surface tension
a measure of the difficulty of stretching or breaking the surface of a liquid; water's surface tension is high b/c the water molecules are more attracted to one another than to the molecules in the air