Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why are electronsattracted to nuclei?
because electrons are negatively charged, they are attracted to nuclei which are positively charged
What determines the force of attraction for the electron and nucleus?
*The force of attraction between an electron and the nucleus depends on the magnitude of the net nuclear charge acting on the electron and on the average distance between the nucleus and the electron
What is the effective nuclear charge?
Effective nuclear charge-smaller than the nucleart charge because it accounts for electron repulsions
Why are electrons in higher subshells less attracted to the nucleus?
Inner partially shield or screen the outer electrons from the attraction of the nuclus
What are the periodic trends for Z effective?
The effective nuclear charge increases as we move across any row of the table, although the number of core electrons stays the same as we move across the row, the actual nuclear charge increases, the valence electrons added to counterbalance the increasing nuclear charge shield one another very ineffectively so the nuclear charge increases steadily
The effective charge increases slightly as we go down a family because larger electrons cores are less able to screen the outer electrons from the nuclear charge
What are ther periodic trends for atomic?
Atomic radii:In a group atomic radius increases from top to bottom because of the increase in the principle quantum number of the outer electrons, as we go down a column the outer electrons have a greater probability of being farther from the nucleus which increases
Within each row atomic radius tends to decrease from left to right because of an increase in the increase in the effective nuclear charge as we move across a row the increasing Zeff steadily draws the valence electrons closer to the nucleus causing the radius to decrease
Describe cations and anions?
Cations are smaller than their parent atoms
Anions are larger than their parents atoms
What does an isoelectronic series?
Isoelectronic series-group of ions all containing the same number of electrons
What is ionization energy?
Ionization energy-minimum energy required to remove an electron from the ground state of the isolated atom or ion
What are the periodic trends for atomci radii?
Within each row ionization energy generally increases with the increasing atomic number
Within each column of the table the ionization energy generally decreases with increasing atomic numbers
In general smaller atoms have higher ionization energies
What is electron affinity?
Electron Affinity-it measures the attraction or affinity of the atom for the added electron
What is difference between I.E. and E.A?
Ionization energy measures the ease with which an atom loses an electron, whereas electron affinity measures the ease with which an atom gains an electron (most are – and release energy when an electorn is added, but some are positive)
What is Lattice energy?
Lattice energy is the energy required to completely separate a mole of solid ionic compound into gaseous compounds
What is the periodic trend for size of atoms?
Size of atoms-decrease across, increase down, depends on principle quantum number and how much psotive attraction protons in nucleus exert on outermost electrons
What is the periodic trend for Zeff?
Zeff increases across because the atoms get smaller, no change down
Reactions become more violent when
What is the periodic trend for first ionization energies?
First ionization energies increase across and down a group, Zeff increases across, atoms larger as you go down
What is amplitude?
max height above and below a line
What is frequency?
number of crests that pass through a given point per unit of time
What determines the photoelectric effect: the intensity of light or frequency?
Frequency, and threshold frequency needed to displace electrons
Why does the photoelectric effect suggest thar light is composed of particles
Light is composed of particles and they smash into, colliding with metal to discharge electrons
What is the energy of a photon?
E=hV (v=frequency)
What did dibroglie suggest?
Electrons could also behave like waves,l the wave length is equal to h/mass of electron*velocity of electrons 9mass in kg)
Electrons also have kinetic energy:
What are the two equations for light?
c=lambdaV, E=hV
What are the two equations for electrons?
lambda=h/mV, KE=1/2mu^2
What is the total energy of a photon?
Binding energy plus kinetic energy
What do more nodes mean?
Higher/more energy
What do nodes signify?
No electron density
How do you determine the number of nodes?
radial N-l-1, angular=l, total=n-1
What are the types of p orbitals?
On any of the axises
Bond enthalpies?
Step 1: lewis structures, step 2: use sume of bonds broken-some of bonds formed
What happens when bonds are formed?
Energy is released
What are the d orbitals?
Dyz (between the two axis) Dxz(Between Axis) Dxy(between axis) Dx^2-y^2 (on the axis) Dz^2 (peanut on z with circle, nodes are cones)
What happens with electrons in NACl?
Na gives electron to cl
What is the born-haber cycle?
get everything to the same state, Ionization energy to get to certain form, break energy to break bonds of Cl, Electron affinity, the negative lattice energy
how is ionization energy related to reactivity>?
The lower the ionization energy the more reactive something is
Most metallic?
lower left,least metallic is upper right