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74 Cards in this Set

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What is a buffer solution
contains a weak acid or weak base and the salt of a weak acid or weak base
In weak acid strong base titrations the pH is
greater than seven because of hte OH ions
In a strong acid weak base titration the pH is
less than seven due to the excess H ions
The presence of a common ion
decreases the solubility
Complex ion
contains a central metal cation bonded to one or more molecules or ions
The greater the Kf...
the greater the stability of the complex (the reaction lies mostly to the right)
Equilibrium constant K =
K = Kf x Ksp
To calculate deltaS and deltaG...
the sum of the G of the products - the sum of the G of the reactants
When H is positive and S is negative
G is always positive, spontaneous in the reverse direction
When H is negative and S is postive
G is always negative, spontaneous in the forward direction
Both H and S are negative
spontaneous at low temperatures, at high temperatures the reverse is spontaneous
Both H and S are positive
spontaneous at high temperatures, reverse is spontaneous at low temperatures
At melting point...(molar heat of fusion)
the liquid and solid of the compound are at equilibrium
At boiling point (molar heat of vaporization)
the gas and liquid states are at equilibrium
Alkanes have the general formula
CnH2n+2
1
methane
2
ethane
3
propane
4
butane
5
pentane
6
hexane
7
heptane
8
octane
9
nonane
C2H5 attachmeht
ethyl group
C3H7
propyl group
When there are more than one CH3 groups
di, tri, tetra
Chiral when...
contains a carbon atom bonded to foud different atoms or groups of atoms (a CH3 and CH2 group can make the molecules chiral)
Alkenes
CnH2n
Naming of alkenes
wherever there is a double bond put the number followed by ----ene
Cis vs. Trans
cis - beside each other, trans - across from each other
Alkyne
have at least one triple bond
CnH2n-2
Aromatic vs. Alophatic
Aromatic - contain at least one benzene ring
Alophatic - do not contain a benzene ring
Phenyl group
a group containing a benzene minus a hyrdogen atom
The most basic oxides...
have metals ions with the lowest positive charge
K2O is more basic that BaO
Two examples when Lewis acids are not bronstead acids
SO2, CO2
1.2-2.8 pH
Thymol Blue
3.0 -4.6 pH
Bromo blue
3.1-4.4 pH
Methyl orange
4.2-6.3 pH
Methyl Red
4.8-6.4 pH
Chloro blue
6.0-7.6 ph
bromothymol Blue
7.2-8.8 pH
Cresol Red
8.3 - 10.0 pH
Phenolphthalein
Boiling points of HF H2O NH3
H20 > HF > NH3 > Ch4
When does liquid rise ?
When adhesion is greater than cohesion
How many atoms does a corner, edge, face cetered and cetered atom make up?
Corner = 1/8
Edge = 1/4
Face = 1/2
Centered = 1
How many atoms are in a simple cubic, body centered cubic, and face centered cubic
simple = 1
body = 2
face = 4
Formula for edge length (a)
V = a^3
How many m in a pm?
How many cm in a pm?
10^12 pm in one meter
10^9 pm in one cm
when going from pm -> cm we minus 30
when going from cm -> pm we add 30
Ionic crystals
High melting points, do not conduct electricity
Covalent Crystals
Hard, high melting points, do not conduct electricity
Molecular Crystals
Soft, low melting point, do not conduct electricity
Metallic crystals
Soft or hard, low or high melting point, good conductor
Critical temperature
The temperature above which a gas cannot liquify
Critical Pressure
the minimum pressure that must be made to bring about liquification
Sublimation vs. Deposition
Sublimations is going directly from solid to gas
Deposition is going directly from gas to solid
Triple Point
all three phases exist at equilibrium
Percent by Mass
Mass solute/ Mass solution
The solubility of gases in water usually _________ with _________ temperature.
decreases , increasing
GDI
The solubility of solids _______ with ________ temperature
Increases, increasing
SII
Nonvolatile
does not have a measurable vapour pressure
Kb and Kf in water
Kb = .52, Kf = 1.86
Hydrophobic vs. hydrophillic
phobic - not be stable in water, particles would clump together
phillic - contain extremely large particles such as colloids
First order reaction
1/s
ln2/k
Second order reactions
1/M/s
1/l(initial concentration)
Catalysis
THe rate catalyzed is greater than the rate uncatalyzed
Zero Order reaction
M/s
(Ao)/2k
When Qc>Kc
Reaction proceeds from right to left, produces more reactants
When Qc<Kc
Reaction proceeds from right to left, produces more products
Le Chatelier's principle and concentration
When more products are added rxn shifts from right to left and more reactants are created
When the products are removed from the system the equilibrium shifts from left to right and more products are created
Le Chatelier's principle and Pressure
only gasses are affected by this
An increase in pressure shifts the equilibrium to the lowest amount of moles of gas
A decrease in pressure shifts the equilibrium in the direction with the greatest moles of gas
Only a change in _______ can change the equilibrium constant
temperature
Le Chatelier's principle and temperature
increase in temperature favours the endothermic reaction, a decrease in temperature favours the exothermic reaction