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26 Cards in this Set

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Physical property
those that a substance displays without changing its composition
Chemical property
those that a substance displays only through changing its composition.
joule
common unit of energy
Kelvin
The temperature scale that assigns 0 K to the coldest temperature possible, absolute zero (-273 C or -459 F), the temperature at which molecular motion stops. The size of the kelvin is identical to that of the Celsius degree.
Fahrenheit
The temperature scale that is most familiar in the US; water freezes at 32 F and boils at 212 F
Chemical change
A change in which matter changes its cmopositon.
Physical change
A change in which matter does not change its composition, even though its appearance might change.
physical and chemical changes
To distinguish between physical and chemical changes, ask whether the substances changes composition during the change. It it does not change composition, the change is physical; if it does, the change is chemical.
Physical and chemical properties
To distinguish between physical and chemical properties, ask whether the substance changes composition while displaying the property. If it does not change composition, the property is physcial; it it does, the property is chemical.
Temperature
the temperature of matter is related to the random motions of the molecules and atoms that compose it. the greater the motion, the higher the temperature. Temperature is commonly measured on three scales: Farenheit ( F); Celsius ( C); and Kelvin (K)
Law of conservation of matter
matter is neither created or destoryed in a chemical reaction.
element
a substance that connot be broke down into a simpler substances. example copper
compound
a substance composed of two or more elements in fixed definite proportions.
compounds are more common than pure elements. examples: water, table salt, sugar
mixture
composed of two or more different types of atoms or molecules combined in variable proportions.
hetrogeneous mixture
a mixture, such as oil and water, that has two or more regions with different compositions.
homogeneous mixture
a mixture, such as salt water, that has the same compostion throughout.
solution
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
heat capacity
The quantity of heat energy required to change the temperature of a given amount of a substance by 1 C.
calorie
(cal) The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 C.
Calorie
(Cal) A energy unit equivalent to 1000 little-c calories.
specific heat or specific heat capacity
The heat capacity of a substance in joules per gram degree celsius (J/g C).
potential energy
The energy of a body that is associated with its position or the arrangement of its parts.
kinetic energy
Energy associated with the motion of an object.
Law of conservation of energy states:
Energy can be neither created nor destroyed.
Law of conservation of mass states:
Matter is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reaction.
matter
anything that occupies space and has mass. Mater exists in three different states: solid, liquid, and gas.