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### 43 Cards in this Set

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 True or False: A high concentration doesn't effect the vapor pressure very much. False. A high concentration changes the vapor pressure considerably. Vapor pressure of a solution is ______ then the pure liquid. Less True or False: Normal boiling point is different for the pure liquid then for the solution. True Properties that change as a function of the number of solute particles are called __________ properties. Colligative List the four colligative properties: 1. Vapor Pressure 2. Boiling Point 3. Freezing Point 4. Osmotic Pressure Osmosis The migration of solvent molecules through a differentiating membrane from lower concentration to higher concentrations. The larger the gap is between the high concentration substance and the lower concentration substance the ___________ the pressure is. Greater As the concentration of a solution increases, the vapor pressure _________. Decreases As the concentration of a solution increases, the osmotic pressure _________. Increases As the concentration of a solution decreases, the boiling point __________. Decreases As the concentration of a solution decreases, the freezing point _________. Increases The pressure at which an equilibrium is reached for the migration of solvent molecules through a differentiating membrane is the ___________ pressure. Osmotic If the mole fraction of a solvent was 0.5, the vapor pressure would go down by ________. Half K-sub-f is the: K-sub-b is the: Molale freezing point depression constant. Molale boiling point elevation constant. The change in osmotic pressure is symbolized by the symbol ____. Pi The formula for the change in osmotic pressure: MRT The formula for the change in boiling point is: Delta T (because it is a change of temperature) (K-sub-b)(m) The formula for the change in freezing point: Delta T (because it is a change of temperature) (K-sub-f)(m) In ionic solutions, what is different with the calculations to determine the change in osmotic pressure, boiling point or freezing point? An ionic molecule breaks apart into two particles, so 1.3 m of NaCl actually equals 2.6 moles of particles. K-sub-f and K-sub-b are both measured in: degrees C/molal Describe how you would go about finding the molar mass of a molecule using colligative property data: 1. Get concentration 2. Determine moles of solute 3. Knowing the mass and moles, determine molar mass. Delta H represents: Enthalpy (heat content) If delta-H is positive, the reaction is ____thermic. If delta-H is negative, the reaction is ____thermic. Endo Exo A __________ reaction takes place on it's own. Spontaneous Delta-G represents: The free energy of a solution. If delta-G is negative, the order of the substance is _________ in the reaction. Decreasing Less order makes the reaction _______ spontaneous. More What is the formula that represents the change in total energy in a reaction? Delta G = Delta H - T(Delta S) If Delta G is positive, there is a(n)____________ in order. Increase At equilibrium, delta G is ________. Zero If DeltaG is ____________, the reaction is ____________. Negative = Spontaneous Positive = Nonspontaneous As the temperature increases, the entropy term becomes ________ significant. More and more If heat is released in a reaction, it is said to be ________ ________. Enthalpy driven At high temperatures, enthalpy can take over and a reaction can become _________ _________. Entropy driven Unsaturated hydrocarbons are AKA: Alkenes (double bonds) and Alkynes (triple bonds) Saturated hydrocarbons are AKA: Alkanes ______ groups on carbon chains create alcohols. OH Groups that are attached onto carbon chains are called _________ groups. Functional A condensation reaction creates __________ molecules. Water An amino acid contains a _______ group and a ________ group. Amine group and acid group List the four factors that affect rates of reactions. 1. Temp 2. Pressure and concentration 3. Catalysts 4. State of matter A ________ changes the activation energy. Catalyst Activation energy The energy required to get a reaction going.