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43 Cards in this Set

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True or False:
A high concentration doesn't effect the vapor pressure very much.
False. A high concentration changes the vapor pressure considerably.
Vapor pressure of a solution is ______ then the pure liquid.
Less
True or False:
Normal boiling point is different for the pure liquid then for the solution.
True
Properties that change as a function of the number of solute particles are called __________ properties.
Colligative
List the four colligative properties:
1. Vapor Pressure
2. Boiling Point
3. Freezing Point
4. Osmotic Pressure
Osmosis
The migration of solvent molecules through a differentiating membrane from lower concentration to higher concentrations.
The larger the gap is between the high concentration substance and the lower concentration substance the ___________ the pressure is.
Greater
As the concentration of a solution increases, the vapor pressure _________.
Decreases
As the concentration of a solution increases, the osmotic pressure _________.
Increases
As the concentration of a solution decreases, the boiling point __________.
Decreases
As the concentration of a solution decreases, the freezing point _________.
Increases
The pressure at which an equilibrium is reached for the migration of solvent molecules through a differentiating membrane is the ___________ pressure.
Osmotic
If the mole fraction of a solvent was 0.5, the vapor pressure would go down by ________.
Half
K-sub-f is the:
K-sub-b is the:
Molale freezing point depression constant.

Molale boiling point elevation constant.
The change in osmotic pressure is symbolized by the symbol ____.
Pi
The formula for the change in osmotic pressure:
MRT
The formula for the change in boiling point is:
Delta T (because it is a change of temperature)
(K-sub-b)(m)
The formula for the change in freezing point:
Delta T (because it is a change of temperature)
(K-sub-f)(m)
In ionic solutions, what is different with the calculations to determine the change in osmotic pressure, boiling point or freezing point?
An ionic molecule breaks apart into two particles, so 1.3 m of NaCl actually equals 2.6 moles of particles.
K-sub-f and K-sub-b are both measured in:
degrees C/molal
Describe how you would go about finding the molar mass of a molecule using colligative property data:
1. Get concentration
2. Determine moles of solute
3. Knowing the mass and moles, determine molar mass.
Delta H represents:
Enthalpy (heat content)
If delta-H is positive, the reaction is ____thermic. If delta-H is negative, the reaction is ____thermic.
Endo
Exo
A __________ reaction takes place on it's own.
Spontaneous
Delta-G represents:
The free energy of a solution.
If delta-G is negative, the order of the substance is _________ in the reaction.
Decreasing
Less order makes the reaction _______ spontaneous.
More
What is the formula that represents the change in total energy in a reaction?
Delta G = Delta H - T(Delta S)
If Delta G is positive, there is a(n)____________ in order.
Increase
At equilibrium, delta G is ________.
Zero
If DeltaG is ____________, the reaction is ____________.
Negative = Spontaneous
Positive = Nonspontaneous
As the temperature increases, the entropy term becomes ________ significant.
More and more
If heat is released in a reaction, it is said to be ________ ________.
Enthalpy driven
At high temperatures, enthalpy can take over and a reaction can become _________ _________.
Entropy driven
Unsaturated hydrocarbons are AKA:
Alkenes (double bonds) and
Alkynes (triple bonds)
Saturated hydrocarbons are AKA:
Alkanes
______ groups on carbon chains create alcohols.
OH
Groups that are attached onto carbon chains are called _________ groups.
Functional
A condensation reaction creates __________ molecules.
Water
An amino acid contains a _______ group and a ________ group.
Amine group and acid group
List the four factors that affect rates of reactions.
1. Temp
2. Pressure and concentration
3. Catalysts
4. State of matter
A ________ changes the activation energy.
Catalyst
Activation energy
The energy required to get a reaction going.