Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/42

Click to flip

42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Potable water
water that is fit for human consumption
aquifers
grea pools of water trapped in sand and gravel 50-500 ft below the surface
surface water
water from lakes, rivers, and reservoirs
ground water
water pumped from wells that have been drilled into underground aquifers
solvent
a substance capable of disolving other substances
solutes
substances that dissolve in a solvent
solution
a homogeneous mixture of uniform composition
aqueous solutions
solutions in which water is the solvent
mineral
a naturally occurring element or compound that usually has a definite chemical composition, a crystalline structure, and is formed as a result of geological processes
concentration
the ratio of amount of solute to amount of solution
percent
parts per hundred
parts per million (ppm)
1 part per million
liter (L)
the volume occupied by 1000g of water at 4 °C
parts per billion
ppb, 1 part per billion
Molarity (M)
the number of moles of solute present in one liter of solution
volumetric flask
a type of glassware that contains a precise amount of solution when filled to the mark on its neck
electronegativity (EN)
a measure of an atom's attraction for the electrons it shares in a covalent bond
polar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the electrons are not equally shared, but rather displaced toward the more electronegative atom
intromolecular force
a force that exists within a molecule
intermolecular force
a force that occurs between molecules
hydrogen bond
electrostatic attractions between a hydrogen atom bearing a partial positive charge in one molecule and an O,N, or F atom bearing a partial negative charge in a neighvoring molecule
density
the ratio of mass per unit volume
specific heat
the quantity of heat energy that must be absorbed to increase the teperature of 1g of a substance by 1°C
conductivity meter
an apparatus that produces a signal to indicate that electricity is being conducted
nonelectrolyte
a nonconducting solute when in aqueous solution
electrolytes
conducting solutes in aqueous solution
ion
an atom or group of atoms that has acquired a net electric charge as a result of gaining or losing one or more electrons
cation
a positively charged ion
anion
a negatively charged ion
ionic bond
a chemical bond formed by the attraction between oppositely charged ions
ionic compounds
made up of electrically charged ions that are present in fixed proportions and are arranged in a regular, geometric pattern
metals
ten to form cations by lossing their valence electrons
nonmetals
gain electrons to form anions
polyatomic ions
ions that are made up of two or more atoms covalently bound together
carcinogen
a commpound capable of causing cancer
maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG)
the maximum level of a contaminate in drinking water at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons would occure
maximum contaminant level (MCL)
sets the legal limit for the concentration of a contaminant
Calibration graph
a graph that is made by carefully measuring the absorbancies of several solutions of known concentration for the species being analyzed
desalination
a broad general term describing any process that removes ions from salty water
distillation
a separation process in which a solution is heated to the boiling poin and the vapors are condensed and collected
osmosis
the natural tendency for a solvent to move through a membrane from a region of higher solvent concentration to a region of lower solvent concentration
reverse osmosis
using pressure to force the movement of a solvent through a semipermeable membrane from a region of high solute concentration to a region of lower solute concentration