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45 Cards in this Set

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Will increasing the intensity of the irradiating light increase KE of the photoelectrons?
No since each electron can absorb only one photon at a time; Increasing the intensity of the radiation will increase the number photoelectrons though.
An electron falls from the 4s subshell to the 3p subshell, what is likely to occur?
An emission of energy and teh appearance of a bright band in the atomic spectrum b/c it sill probably emit a photon when it loses energy in falling from the 4s to the 3p. Emission of energy from the atom will result in a bright line in its emission spectrum.
What is the critical mass?
the minimum mass of a fissionable material necessary to sustain a nuclear chanin reaction.
How many s, p, d, and f orbitals are there?
one s orbital, three p orbitals, five d orbitals, and seven f orbitals.
How many electrons can each orbital hold?
each orbital can hold 2 electrons;
so a nf subshell can hold 7x2=14 electrons.
For the electron configuration of an atom in an excited state, does that mean there are still the same number of electrons?
YES
What is true of an electron in an excited state: It has (absorbed/emitted) a photon, and its energy has (increased/decreased).
It has absorbed a photon, and its energy has increased.
(T/F) Nobel-gas configurations are characterized by filled valence s and p subshells.
True.
How many electrons are shared in the bond btw sodium and chlorine in a molecule of NaCl?
Zero. NaCl is an inoic compound, and no electrons are shared in an ionic bond.
What is the correspondences btw the hybridization of the central atom and the molecular geometry?
sp: linear
sp2: trigonal planar
sp3: tetrahedral
sp3d: trigonal bypyramid.
(T/F) Transition metal oxides may be acidic or basic depending on the oxidation state of the metal.
True; for example, Mn2O7 is highy acidic while MnO is basic.
I f a molecule is paramagnetic, then...
atleast one electron is unpaired.
A nuclear reaction that releases energy is called
exoergic (just as a chemical reaction that releases heat is called exothermic)
What is the difference between exothermic and exoergic?
- A nuclear reaction that releases energy is called exoergic.
- A chemical reaction that releases heat is called exothermic.
Beta- decay
neutron to proton.
Sodium pertechnetate (NaTcO4) would be predicted to be:
a. a weak a electrolyte
b. a strong base
c. a reducing agent.
d. an oxidizing agent
- Sodium pertechnetate is an ionic compound, and all ionic compounds are strong electrolytes.
- This compound is not a Group I oxide or hydroxide, so it is not a strong base; this eliminates B.
- Due to the high oxidation state of the central atom, pertechnetate ions are strong oxidizing agents.
If the central atom has a high oxidation state, what kind of agent would this be?
a strong oxidizing agent.
(T/F) The line spectra of atoms are the result of the photons emitted when excitd electrons drop to lower energy levels.
True.
(T/F) Highly exothermic redox reactions result from reactions betweeen strong oxidizing agents and strong reducing agents.
True. The quantity of heat evolved from these mixtures depends directly upon the strengths of the oxidants and the reductant.
(T/F) An oxidizing agents always has at least two highly electronegative elements covalently bonded together.

A compound containing a highly electronegative atom (eg. O, N, Cl) with a nonnegative oxidation state will always be an oxidizing agent.
TRUE. The strength of the oxidant is directly related to the electronegativity and oxidation state.
Some common examples of strong oxidizing agents.
H2O2, KClO4, KNO3, KMnO4, F2
(T/F) Reducing agents are compounds that contain an electropositive atom (eg. C, H, metals) with a nonpositive oxidation state.

A reducing agent is any compound in which at least two electropositive atoms are covalently bonded together.
True
Some common mild reducing agents agents are ...
H2(g), C(s), S(s), metal powders, and propane.
Examples of strong reducing agents
alkali metals however infrequently used b/c highly explosive when in the presence of an oxidizing agent.
(T/F) Sodium metla will not explode when mixed with neon gas.
True; b/c neon is a nobel gas and is thus inert to all chemical reactions.
Is LiCl a good reducing or oxidizing agent?
No; salts are non-reactive!
If HCNO is not an oxidizing agent, how must the atoms NOT be connected.
The electronegative atoms N and O must not be directly bonded to each other.
What is the most energetic band of visible light?
violet (ROYGBV)
(T/F) The energy of excitation is equal to the energy of the emitted photon.
True.
(T/F) As you go down a column, the emitted energy increases.
True.
K and Cs are in the same family. if K when added to a flame produces a violet color; what color might a tube of heated cesium ions glow?
- Cesium is below potassium in the family so it must have a higher energy of excitation than violet (ie. UV).
- UV is not detectable by the retina, and no color would be observed.
- The same blinding would occur from higher-energy UV rays as from x-rays.
Cu has 11 valence electrons. What is the ground state for Cu? What is the ground state for Cu(1) ion?
Cu: [Ar]4s13d10
Cu(I): [Ar]3d10
remember: transition metals always loose their valence s electrons before any d electrons.
What is the only biochemical use for iodine?
- synthesis of metabolic hormone in which iodine is required for its structure.
- this hormone is synthesized in the TYROID
(T/F) Gamma-ray photons (liek all photons) are massless, and have the greatest depth of penetration.
True.
(T/F) Progressing through the periodic table, small stable nuclei have the same number of protons and neutrons. But b/c the intranuclear electrostatic repulsion w/in a more crowded nucleus is much greater, more neutrons are required to keep bigger nuclei together. Thus...
# of neutrons, N, should increases faster than the # of protons, Z, and the group should begin to curve upwards as Z increases.
A fissile is...
a nucleus which will become a fissioning nucleus after the addition of one neutron.
The mass of Uranium-236 has to be greater than the fission product particles because....
energy is released (mass to energy conversion)
By definition, fusion occurs when...
two nuclei approach and bond to one another.
THe sun is powered by fusion. The overall solar fusion reaction is:
H + H + H + H => He + 2X + energy. Identify the missing particle X.
Positron b/c four hydrogens have a total charge of +4, while helium has a charge of +2 so we're missing +2 charge.
(T/F) Magnetic fields can contain neutrons
FALSE; magnetic fields can only contain charge particles since magnetic fields only affect moving charged particles.
(T/F) Iodine131 is not a nutrient requirement of cells (thyroid being an exception) and would not be absorbed into the tissues.
True.
(T/F) Kideny-liver: two highly vascular organs whose primary function is to purify blood by filtering fluids through cellular membranes.
True.
(T/F) NMR uses radio waves.
True.
Why are cancerous cells more vulneratble to the effects of radiation than ordinary cells?
B/c cancerous cells actively transport more plasma through their membranes; cancerous cells have a higher metabolic rate.
Can photons have negative energy?
No, never!