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36 Cards in this Set

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hydrocarbons
H+C
organic
anything with carvon in it
what kind of molecules are hydrocarbons
non-polar
what kind of bonds do hydrocarbons have
covalent
6 characterizationf of hydrocarbons
1. the molecules are nonpolar
2. they are not soluble in water
3. doesnt ionize- doesnt conduct a current
4. low melting point (liquid/gas at room temp)
5. slow reaction rate
6. high energy of activation
alphatic
straight chain
isomers
compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas
how to name iosnmers
1. where the groups are-what carbons they're on
2. how many add-on groups
3. the longest chain
methyl group
add on group
homologous series
a group of compounds in which there is a constant increment of change in molecular structure from one compound to the next
formula of alkanes
CnH2n+2
formula of alkenes
CnH2n
formula of alkynes
CnH2n-2
saturated
single bonds, unhealthy, animals fats
unsaturated
double bonds healthy- plants
alkanes
single bond
alkenes
double bonds
alkynes
triple bonds
how many hydrogens do unsaturated compounds contain
fewer than the maximum number oof hydrogens in their structure
how many bonds do unsatured compounds have
double or triple bonds
cyclical H-C
ring structures
formula for cylical H-C
CnH2n
circle in the middle means
alternate double bonds
how do u distinguish an alcohol
ends in "OL"
-contains OH- but is not a base
boiling points of alcohols
slightly higher than their alkanes
3 classes of alcohols
1. monohydroxy alcohol (one OH)
2. dihydroxy alcohol (two OH)
3. trihydroy alcohol (three OH)
types of monohydroxy alcohols
1. primary (one C connected)
2. secondary (2 cs connected)
3. tertiary (3 cs connected)
methanol
partly polar
organic reactions
1. substitution
2. addition
3. estenfication
4. sapooification
5. fermentation
substitution
replacting one part of it with another molcule
addition
has to start with something unsaturated
-puts 2 different things together , combines them
esterification
making an ester
organic acid+alcohol=ester+water
saporification
making of soap
opposite of esterification
fat+ester
polymer
chain of repeating units
polymerization
small molecules join to form a big molecule
fermentation
making alcohol
glucose-->alcohol + CO2