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67 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
potential energy and stability
more potential energy=less stability
how do you find the heat of reaction?
Products potential energy-reactants potential energy
heat of reaction pos. and neg. values
exo=pos. value
endo=neg. value
which are endothermic reactions
SLG
which are exothermic reactions
GLS
energy of activation
energ needed to start a reaction
whose energy of activation is higher, endo or exo?
exo
what are substances
elements and compounds
which way does heat travel
from higher to lower temp.
transducer
something that converts one form of energy to another form of energy
what increases as time increases in a heating/cooling curve
potential energy
when is the first time you see something in its new phase?
only at the point when it reaches its highest temp.
what is specific heat
4.18 J/g C
what is the formula for heat
Q=M delta T C
heat=mass x change in temp x specific heat
what happens to heat in a heating curve
it is absorbed
what happens to heatin a cooling curve
heat is released
what kind of reaction does a coolking curve show
exothermic
what kind of reaction does a heating curve show
endothermic
what processes are in a heating curve
1. melting (fusion)
2. boiling (vaporization)
what processes are in a coolking curve
1. freezing (solidification/crystallization)
2.. condensation
wavelengths and energy
the shorter the wavelength, the greater the energy
what happens when electrons fall back down from their excited state to their ground state
they give off energy
what does a lower energy level mean about stability
it is more stable
atom
smalllest part of an element that retains the properties of that element
stability vs. # of neutrons in an isotope
more neutrons=less stable
quantum
packet of energy required to boost an electron to a higher energy level
order of penetrating power of decay thingys
most powerful=gamma
2nd=beta
3rd=alpha
what do all radioactive things end up as?
stable, radioactive lead
half-life
the amount of time for half of a substance to decay
what do you do to go forward in time with half life
divide by two
what do you do to go backwards in time with half life
multiply by 2
what is more stable hydrogen and oxygen separate or together?
together- more stable, less pe
fusion
A+B---AB + energy
binding energy
the amount of energy released when a nucleus is formed fro its component parts
fission
chain reaction breaking up
characteristics of ionic compounds
1. high melting and boiling pts
2. solid at room temp
3. crystalline
4. do not conduct electricity in teh solid state
characteristics of molecules
low melting pt, low boiling pt, generally are gases
metal and nonmetals losing and gaining electrons
metals lose electrons
nonmetals gain electrons
ionic bonds and electronegativity
if the electronegativity is greater than 1.7
covalent bonds and electrongegavity
electronegaivity diffference is less than 1.7
nonmetlas and metals and electronegavitiy
nonmetals have high electronegavitity
metals have low electronegaivity
cations and anions
cations=metals in lew dot
anions=nonmetals in lew dot
where is the most electronegative part of the periodic table
upper right
wehre is theleast electronegative part of the periodic table
lower left
why is there no way to measure the electronegativity of noble gases?
bc they dont react w/ any other atoms
what is the only kind of attraction a molecule can have if its balanced?
van der waals
molecule size vs. forces
bigger molecule=bigger forces
distance between molecule vs. forces
the closer the molecules, the great the forces
what kind of attraction is there between non-polar molecules
weak
how do you find out what compound has the highest boiling pt.
the one with the most attraction between them
sea of mobile electrons
-in metals
electricity flows through them bc electrons are mobile; they flow and are alwyas moving so they give up electrons easily
what kind of bonding do all carbon and hydrogen compounds have
covalent
how do you know if something dissolves
like dissolves in like
why do metals have a low melting pt
sea of mobile electrons
polarity and difference in electronegativity
most polar=greatest difference in electronegaivity
least polar= least difference in electronegativity
what has a triple covlanet bond
N2
bonding breaking and forming and energy
bond breaking absorbs energy
bond forming releases energy
degenerate
alll of the same energy level
van der waals
the weak intermolecular attractios between nonpolar molecules
htdrogen vonding
bonding between hydrogen and oxyge, hydrogen and flourine, and hydrogen and nitrogen
molecular-ionic attraction
ionic charges cause attraction
dipole-dipole attraction
polar attractions between two molecules
how to name binary acids
hydro+_____ic acid
AB
how to name ternary acids
H+ polyatomic ion
i ate something icky
ate-->ic
mighty mouse
ite-->ous
three ways to test for carvon dioxide
1. extinguishes flame
2. limewater goes from clear to cloud
3. bromythymol blue turns yellow
what is avogardros #
6.02 x 10^23
what do all acids contain
hydrogen