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117 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
alkali metals
group 1A
alkaline earth metals
group 2a
chalcogens
group 6a
halogens
group 7a
mendelev
-first to organize periodic table
-listed elements in increasing atomic mass
-elements that react similarly are in vertical columns
distillation
based on boiling point differences, mainly to separate homogeneous mixes.
top 5 elements in human body
oxygen
carbon
hydrogen
nitrogen
calcium
naming covalent compounds (P2O5)
phosphorous pentoxide
covalent compounds properties
lower melting point and boiling point.
must be gas, solid, or liquid.
ionic compounds
-most are solids
-high melting and boiling points
-highly soluble in water
-metal + nonmetal.
naming ionic compounds (K2S)
potassium sulfide
aristotle
earth, fire, water, air
democritus
much smaller things
lavoisier
-discovered law of conservation of mass
-developed quantization of experiments
-head lopped off
lavoisier
-discovered law of conservation of mass
-developed quantization of experiments
-head lopped off
boyle
elements contain only one compounds
preistly
-isolated oxygen
-studied carbonation and photosynthesis
proust
-discovered law of definite proportions
-"elements combine in definite mass ratios to fowm compounds"
cavendish
-isolated hydrogen
-proved water is a compound
avogadro
found that several elements are diatomic
i wouldn't like 2 avocados
dalton's atomic theory
-made 5 postulates explaning past observations using the concept of atom.
theory= postulates
jj thompson- cathode ray tube
discovered electron by putting magnet above cathode ray tube.
jj= magnet loop
robert millikan
found exact mass and charge of electron. placed oil in special chamber and used charges to alter heights and therefore measure mass.
millikan= students are color of oil
plum pudding model
all subatomic particles are spaced about like plum pudding.
ernest rutherford.
discovered nucleus by firing radiation through gold foil and seeing refraction
electron
-(-)
-outside nucleus
-relative mass- 1
electricity, when ran through your body is negative. you only have one life.
proton
-(+)
-1836
-inside nucleus
pro- positive
neutron
-no charge
-inside nucleus
-1841RM
nu- neutral
james chadwick
discovered neutron
-
A-Z=
nuetrons
Z
-(p)
-atomic #
A
-mass number
-(p+n)
mass= more
bequerel
-studying uranium crystals
-first to recognize radiation
beckons the question of why he was playing wiht uranium
curies
-coined term radioactivity
-she won 2 nobel prizes
-discovered polonium and radium
-she died from radiation
-he died from getting run down by horse
can't cure a horse trampling
rutherford
-discovered alpha and beta particles
-connected radiation to nuclear instability
fords are unstable.
alpha particles
-a helium nucleus
-2 protons and nuetrons
-lowest penetrationability
kids eat alpha bits
beta particles
-very high energy electron
-negatively charged
alpha beta is a negative place to shop
beta particles
-very high energy electron
-negatively charged
alpha beta is a negative place to shop
gamma ray
pure energy
not charged
positrons
positively charged elecron
radon gas
uranium decay in soil
radioisotopes in medicine
diagnostic- detect tumors...
theraputic- use for curing and destroying cancerous cells
strong nuclear force
-attractive force
-weaker than electrostatic forces
-short range
-"nuclear cement"
electrostatic repulsion
makes nucleus unstable
long range force across nucleus.
involved with protons only
conceptual model of atom
all atom models are conceptual, we cannot see inside atoms
wavelength
distance between two peaks on wave
frequency
number of peaks that pass a point in space per second.
velocity of light wave
c= wavelength x frequency
y rays
low wavelength
high energy
high velocity
x rays
just below y rays in energy
visible light
white= all colors
black= absense of color
infared light
"heat waves"
cause vibrational excitation in molecules
microwaves
cause rotational excitement in molecules
radiowaves
lowest energy
atomic line spectra
colors of electromagnetic radiation emitted by excited electrons in atoms when they relax
excitation of energy by electrons in atoms
absorbtion of radiation by electrons
relaxation
emission of energy by electrons as they drop back into their ground state.
max plank
light quanta- thought of light having discrete particles of energy called quanta
einstein and photons of light
photon= light particle w/ specific energy.
classical mechanics
macroscopic- applies to everyday nonsense.
quantum mechanics
-subatomic (used to explain electron motion)
-only certain values are allowed
-answers are in terms of probability
neils bohr
planetary model of atom
wrong, but recieved nobel prize
helped make quantum theory popular
heisenberg uncertainty principle
cannot know the exact position or momentum of electron at same time.
orbital
three dimensional region of space about a nucleus that contains 90% of electron probability.
quantum mechanical model of atom
erwin shroedenger- pure mathematics that treats electrons as wave-like as well as particles.
elecron shells
-7 shells of electrons
-outermost shell has valence electrons
-innermost shell contains core electrons
-number of valence electrons determines overal chem of atom.
atomic size
increases from top to bottom, decreases from left to right.
ionization energy
top to bottom- IE decreases
left to right- IE increases
ionic compounds bonding
metal cation bonds with a nonmetal anion
covalent compound bonding
covalent compounds have all nonmetal atoms become isoelectronic with the nearest noble gas by sharing electrons.
strong electrolytes
forms many ions in h2o
weak electrolytes
only forms a few ions in solution
non electrolytes
do not form ions in solution
ion
charged ion
cation
positively charged ion
anion
negatively chaged ion
free radical
odd # of total valence electrons, therefore unstable and highly reactive
antioxidant
species that help reduce free radical oxidation damage.
oxidation
when an electron is removed from a species or by gaining an O atom or losing an H atom.
organic compounds
based on carbon chemistry: also, H, O,S,N, halogens.
hydrocarbons
organic compounds consisting of C + H atoms only (fossil fuels)
alkanes
single bond (c-c)
alkenes
double bond between carbons
alkynes
one triple bond between carbons
aromatic compounds
all have benzyne rings
molecular formula
does not show atom connectivity or bonds (i.e. C2H6O)
aromatic compounds
all have benzyne rings
saturated compound
all c atoms are bonded by single bonds
unsaturated compound
at least one double of triple bond between C atoms.
meth
1 c atom
prop
2 c atoms
prop
3 c atoms
eth
2 c atoms
but
4 c atoms
calcium
- number one by mass in body
- strong bones and teeth
- nerve impulse transmission
- regulation of heartbeat
- mustcle contraction
- heartbeat
iodide
-proper function of thyroid
-deficiency= goiter
iron
oxygen transport in hemoglobin
- in myoglobin for 02 storage in muscles
- deficiency= anemia
potassium
concentrated inside cells
- critical to maintain heartbeat
sodium
outside cells
- excess can lead to edema and hypertension
- maintains body fluid regulation
potassium
concentrated inside cells
- critical to maintain heartbeat
zinc
for functioning of immune system
- growth and development of fetus and children
enzymes
chemicals that increase reaction speeds
phosphorous
-2nd most abundant mineral in body
-found in hydroxyapatite in bones and teeth
-found in ATP
-part of genetic material
-found in phospholipids
chlorine
- provides electrical balance
-part of stomach acid
sulfur
- found in many proteins for stabilizing structure
flourine
reacts with hydroxyapatite to form flourapatite
- too much flouride can cause flourosis (discoloration of teeth)
stomach acid as HCl and its main uses
-destroys bacteria you dont want in body
- activates certain protein digesting enzymes
- cause proteins to denature or unfold.
phospholipids
main component of cell membranes
metastasize
cancer spreads to other parts of body
main causes of cancer
radiation
virus
carcinogens
genetics
chemotherapy
kill cancer with chemicals by binding to DNA to prevent midotsis
top ten causes of death
1. heart disease
2. cancer
3. stroke
4. lung disease
5. accident
6. pnemonia
7. diabetes
8. suicide
9. hiv infection
10. homicide
sweat
99% water adn many electrolytes.
caffiene
impacts kidnes directly to increase urination
alcohol
blocks the action fo ADH
oncogene
regulate cell growth
suppressor gene
limiting cell growth and division