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17 Cards in this Set

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colorimetry
set of solutions of known concentrations is placed in a series of containers. unknown concentration is compared w/ calibrateion set
beer's law
Absorbance=abc
a=prob. that substance absorbs light
b= path legnth of light thru sample
c= concentration of substance in solution
why aluminum expensive to produce
1. high grade bauxite deposits (needed) occur outside US
2. Hall-Heroult process extremely energy intensive
2 uses for alum compound
1. phosphate removal agents in water and waste treatment plants
2. soap, plastics, cosmetics
presences of SO4, K+, Al3+, H2O
K+ : flame test; purple showed K+ was present
Al3+ : pH=1 to show Al present and acidic reaction
SO4: Barium w/ crystals showed insoluble SO4
H2O: flame->bubbling; crackling noise of evaporation was H2O was present
"like dissolves like"
polar compounds dissolve in polar solutions
nonpolar compounds dissolve in nonpolar solutions
ex.ammonia soluble in water (both polar)
kerosene, pentanol, ethanol, water
kerosene:w/ h2o=layered (nonpolar)
pentanol:w/kerosene=layered/mixture (nonpolar)
ethonal:w/kerosene=layered (polar)
water:w/ h2o=mixture (polar)
precipitation
produces new compuond not soluble in aq. solution
acid-base solution
acid reacts w/ base to give water and salt
complexation
1 or more coordinate covalent bonds produced during formation
redox
electrons are transferred from one species to another
why water sample need to be spiked w/ MgEDTA?
to ensure there is Mg in the water sample b/c Mg is needed for the reaction to occur
ion exchange resin
monovalent cations are exchanged w/ divalent cations
how AA is carried out
hallow cathode lamps emit monochromatic light, which corresponds to ^E of elements being analyzed. atoms in sample having electronic engery separation ^E will absorb the light and amount of absorbance is proportional to concentration of metal atoms in sample
beer-lambert law
I(t)=I(o)(10^-abc)
I(o) is the intial light sorce and its decrease is proportional to the concentration of the metal in the sample
purpose of "standards" taht run as part of AA analysis?
`the most accurate region of the calibration curve is between the max and min standard points
problem w/ analyzing sample whose absorbance exceeds 1 absorbance unit?
if the sample is above 1 au, there is little light transmitted for the PMT to detect.