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23 Cards in this Set

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Who was the first to discover an atom was made of a nucleus with postively charged particles? How did he discover it?
Rutherford; he bombarded metal foil with positive particles
What is the measurement of a wave's peak to the next peak called?
wavelength
What is frequency?
indicated by how many wave peaks pass a certain point per given time period
What color has the greatest energy?
violet
S Orbitals:
a. Shape
b. Group of elements with S orbitals are called
c. Lowest energy level
d. Highest energy level
a. sphere shaped
b. alkali metals, alkaline earth metals (1A-2A)
c. 1
d. 7
P Orbitals:
a. Shape
b. Group of elements with P orbitals are called
c. Lowest energy level
d. Highest energy level
a. figure 8/dumbbell shaped
b. noble gases (except He), metalloids, chalcogens, halogens, non-metals (3A-8A)
c. 2
d. 6
D Orbitals:
a. Shape
b. Group of elements with D orbitals are called
c. Lowest energy level
d. Highest energy level
a. 4 leaf clovers
b. transitional metals
c. 3
d. 6
F Orbitals:
a. Lowest energy level
b. Highest energy level
a. 4
b. 5
3d^4
a. What does the 3 tell us?
b. What does the d tell us?
c. What does the 4 tell us?
a. average distance from the nucleus of the atom
b. shape (distribution)
c. number of electrons in orbital
What is the real difference between the way that ionic and covalent bonds form?
covalent- shares the electrons
ionic- one atom takes the electon while the other atom gives it up, creating a positive and negative attraction
What shape does PH3 have? Draw its Lewis dot structure.
trigonal planar;
H
|
H - P - H
..
What shape does OF2 have? Draw its Lewis dot structure.
bent;
.. .. ..
:F - O - F:
.. .. ..
What shape does HClO3 have? Draw its Lewis dot structure.
tetrahedral;

..
:O:
.. | ..
:O - Cl - O:
.. | ..
H
What shape does CO2 have? Draw its Lewis dot structure.
linear;
:O = C = O:
.. ..
Why do electrons have lower potential energy when they are further apart from one another?
there's less of a chance that they will bond together
What is the difference between a polar bond and a polar molecule? How do you decide if a bond is polar? How do you decide is a molecule is polar?
Polar bonds deal only with electronegativity; a polar molecule must have polar bonds and be asymmetrical; if the 2 molecules have electronegativities with a difference of either >.2 or <2; must have polar bonds and be asymmetrical
Why must all diatomic molecules be linear?
because they must bond with only one another and they share the bonds
Describe the geometry of the molecules which have the following shapes and give their bond angles:
a. linear
b. bent
c. v-shaped
d. tetrahedral
e. trigonal pyramidal
f. trigonal planar
a. all diatomic molecules or if a CA has 2 molecules around it with 0 unshared pairs; 180
b. CA has 2 atoms and 2 unshared pairs; 105
c. CA has 2 atoms and 1 unshared pair; 120
d. CA has 4 atoms and 0 unshared pairs; 109.5
e. CA has 3 atoms and 1 unshared pair; 109.5
f. CA has 3 atoms and 0 unshared pairs; 120
What does it mean when energy is reported with a positive sign? With a negative sign? (+ delta H or - delta H)
+ means endothermic
- means exothermic
PICTURE
a. energy
b. reaction process
c. reactants
d. Ea(R)
e. delta H
f. products
g. catalyst added
h. Ea(L)
What is the rate law?
Rate = k[A]^n
A is the reactants
Consider the following rate law: Rate = k[A]^n[B]^m. How are the exponents n and m determined?
by experiment
On a molecular level, why does temperature affect the rate of a reaction? Why does concentration?
when the temperature rises the molecules move faster so there is a greater chance that the reaction will occur; when the concentration is higher there are more molecules so there is a greater chance that the reaction will occur