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### 77 Cards in this Set

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 What is molecular geometry? general shape of a molecule. the five types are linear, trigonal planar, tetrahedral, trigonal bypiramidal, and octahedral. What is the VSEPR model? Valence-shell electron-repulsion. States that shapes of molecules and ions are predicted by the fact that electrons prefer to be kept as far away from each other. IF an atom has two pairs of electrons... Its is linear. the atoms are at 180 degrees to each other If an atom has three pairs of electrons.. It is trigonal planar, and the atoms are at 120 degrees to each other. However, if there is one lone pair, the molecular geometry is bent, and the angle is slightly less than 120. If an atom has four pairs of electrons then the arrangement is tetrahedral. If there is no lone pairs, then molecular geometry is tetrahedral as well and the angles are 109.5. However, with one lone pair, the geometry is trigonal pyramidal, with two lone pairs, it is bent. If an atom has 5 pairs of electrons it is trigonal bipyramidal by arrangement. If there are no lone pairs, then the geometry is trigonal bipyramidal as well. If there is one, then it is Seesaw, if there is two, then it is Tshaped, and if there is three, it is linear. The angles are: 90 for axial, and 120 for those between the equatorial atoms. If an atom has 6 pairs it is octahedral. All angles are 90. if no lone pairs- octahedral geometry. If one lone pair- square pyramidal. If 2- sqaure planar. Steps of prediction using VSEPR 1) electron dot formula from molecular formula 2) determine number of electron pairs around central atom 3) determine arrangement 4) getermine geometry. what affects bond angles and how? lone pairs- they require more space, therefore, the angles between otehr atoms are less than what predicted multiple bonds also require more space because they contain greater number of electrons What is a dipole moment? it is a quantitative measure of the degree of charge separation in a molecule. measured in debyes. Points from a positive partial charge to negative. Linear, trigonal planar, and tetrahedrtal give 0 dipole. Valence Bond Theory attempts to explain the electron pair or covalent bond by quantum mechanics. 1) an orbital of 1 atom comes to occupy a portion of the same region of space as an orbital on the other atom.= overlap 2) no more than 2e per orbital. orbitals bond in the direction in which they protrude, or point. Hyprid orbitals. orbitals used to explain bonding=> take combinations of other orbitals. Number of hybrid orbitals formed = number of orbitals used. To obtain a bonding description: 1) lewis electron dot 2) use VSEPR 3)# of hybrid orbitals. 4)assign valence electrons to hybridized orbitals 5) overlap orbitals Multiple Bonding one hybrid orbital needed for multiple bonds and lone pairs as well. sigma and pi bonds sigma vs. pi sigma- cylindrical shape about axis- formed when two s orbitals, or s and p overlap. along axis PI- distribution above and below axis. formed by sideways overlap of 2 p orbitals. double bonds one pi, one sigma. one unhybridized 2p triple bond one sigma, tWO pi. two unhybridized 2P's Molecular Theory electrons put into orbitals with least energy. binding vs. antibonding bonding where electrons are concentrated antibonding where electrons spend less time. order of molecular orbitals see book. Bond Order .5(#e bonding-#e antibonding) diamagnetic vs. paramagnetic dia- substance not attracted by magnetic field- only paired e para- slightly attracted Energy involved in Ionic bonding can be described by Coulomb's law. E= kQQ/r lattice energy cahnge in energy wen idonic solid spearates into isolated ions. Main-group ions losing electrons requires more energy-> IIIA elements show less tendency to form ionic compuonds. Ionic radius decreases in period, increases in group. if isoelectronic, go by proton # Bond Length distance between nucleus and point of minimum energy Coordinate covalent bond wehre both electrosn are donated by one atom: NH3+ Polar Covalent Bonds and electronegativity Measure of how able the atom is to draw bonding electrons to itself. I.E-E.A/2 Electronegativity increases in period, decreases in group. Which Atoms Central? the one that is least electronegative? Oxoacids substances in which O atoms are bonded to a central atom, with one or more H atoms usally bonded to O. PS. Metals forms basis, Nonmentals form Acids. Exceptions to the OCtet rule atoms that have d orbitals 1)calculate total # of e for molecule 2)write skeleton structure 3)distribute electorns to the atoms surrounding the central 4)distribute the remaining electrons as pairs to the central atom. If there are fewer than 8 electrons, suggests that multiple bond is present. Formal charge addition equals charge on the molecule Building up principle do the triangle all the way up to f Periodic law when elements are arranged according to atomic number, physical and chemical properties vary perioducally effective nuclear charge positive charge electron experiences from nucleus. Ionization energy minimum energy needed to remove the highest energy electron from enutral atom. increases with increasing atomic number. It is harder to remove electrons if one must break the noble gas core. Electron Affinity energy change for the process of adding an electron to a neutral atom in the gaseous state to form a negative ion. If large, then the neutral atom is stable. increases in period Basic Oxide an oxide that reacts with acids- metals Acidic Oxide oxide that reacts with bases- nonmetals Speed of light 3*10^8m/s. c=v(frequency)* lambda PLank's Quantization of Energy E=h*frequency Energy of a photon Bohr E=-Rh/n^2- energy at a principle quantum number hv=-deltaE=-(Ef-Ei) hv=Rh(1/nf^2-1/ni^2) de BroLIE wawelength(lambda)=h/mv Uncertainty Principle (delta x)(delta p)>= h/4pi uncertainty in position p=momentum=mv- can interchange quantum numbers n=principal energy level l=angular momentum- 0,1,2,3. n-1 ml=magnetic Q#- from -to+l ms=spin. +/- 1/2 Ionization energy increases from first ionization energy to second, etc.. getting closer to nucleus Electrolyte dissolves in water- a strong one exists in solution almost entirely as ion. a weak one- doesnt dissolve readily. Nonelectrolyte doesnt dissolve readily Solubility rules. group IA and ammonium are soluble Acetates and nitrates are soluble Most chlorides, bromides, and iodides anre soluble. excepts those with Ag, Hg, and Pb. Most sulfates are soluble- except Ca, Sr, and Ba, and Ag, Hg, Pb Most carbonates are insoluble. except group IA and ammonium Most Phosphates, except IA and nh4+ MOst sulfides are insuluble, except as above most hydroxides are insoluble, except for above, Ax, Sr, Ba Types of chemical reactions precipitation, acid base, oxidation reduction Acid species that donates a proton (H+) to another species. Base one that accepts proton Strong Acids HCLO4 H2SO4 HI Hbr HCl HNO3 Strong Base LiOH NaOH KOH Ca(OH)2 Sr(OH)2 Ba(OH)2 prefixes 1-10 mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca. Acid naming if ate-ic if ite-ous Carbonate Ion CO3(2-), Nitrite NO2- Nitrate NO3- Phostate PO4(3-) Sulfite SO3, 2- Sufate SO4, 2- Hypochlorite ClO- Chlorite ClO2- Chlorate ClO3- Perchlorate ClO4- Ammonium NH4+ Cyanide CN- Carbonate CO3,2- Bicarbonate HCO3,- Acetate C2H3O2, 2- Oxalate C2O4,2- Chromate CrO4,2- Dichromate Cr2O7, 2- Permanganate MnO4-