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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
micro
ten negative six
NANO
ten negative nine
pico
ten negative 12
femto
ten negative 15
attractive and repulsive forces that act between either electrically charged or magnetic objects
electromagnetic forces
same number of protons but different number of neutrons
isotope
atomic weight = ??
abundance of isotope x mass + abundance of isotope2 x mass2
intrument used to measure precise masses and relative amounts of atomic and molecular ions
mass spectrometer
group 1a
alkali metals
group 2a
alkaline earth metals
group 6a
chalcogens
group 7a
halogens
group 8a
noble gases(rare gases)
rutherford experiment
shot particles at gold foil, discovered the nucleus
unit of frequency
hertz, or cycles per second
light or dark: wave crests arrive together
light
light or dark: wave crest and trough arrive together
dark
atoms emit or absorb energy in quanta; energy of light is quantized as photons
quantum theory
energy of a photon is what number?
planck's constant 6.606e-34 j s
Electrons are emitted by metal only if light has freq greater than certain min. value, not matter how intense the light
photoelectric effect
light emitted by excited atoms
line spectra
distance between two adjacent peaks
wavelength
distance of wave from center line to crest or trough
amplitude
smallest wavelength
gamma rays
largest wavelength
radio
electromagnetic spectrum from smallest to greatest wavelength
gamma x uv visible infrared microwaves radio
visible light range
400 to 700
visible light order from smallest to largest wavelength
vibgyor
emission of light from hot objects
black body effect
emission of electrons from metal surfaces on which light shines
photoelectric effect
emission of light from electronically excited gas atoms
emission spectra
a fixed amount
quantum
quantum??
a fixed amount
said energy can only be released or absorbed by atoms only in discrete chunks of some minimum size
planck
radiation composed of a single wavelenght
monochromatic
when radiation from a source is seperated into its different wavelength components
spectrum
spectrum containing radiation of only specific wavelengths
line spectrum
when n is infinity, energy is
zero
limitation of the bohr model
can only explain line spectrum for H atom
describes the wave characteristics of material particles
matter waves
it is inherently impossible for us to know simultaneously both the exact momentum of the e and its exact location in space
uncertainty principle
no two e in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
pauli exclusion principle
all orbitals filled unpaired first
Hund's rule
quantum number, measures size
n
quantum number, measures shape
l
quantum number, measures orientation
ml
quantum number, measures spin
ms
L values correspond to these subshells
0 s 1 p 2 d 3 f
region of space with size, shape, characteristic energy
orbitals
shape of s orbital number 1
spherical
shape of p orbital number 3
dumbbell
shape of d orbital number 5
5 shapes
principal quantum number
n
asimuthal quantum number
L
magnetic quantum number
mL
these control the chemistry of the elements
valence electrons
organization of periodic table determined by
electron configurations
elemental properties determined by
size and shape of orbitals and atomic number
atomic size across a group, atomic size down a period
decreases and increases
effective nuclear charge across a group, effective nuclear charge down a period
increases and increases
net positive charge experienced by an electron in a many-electron atom
effective nuclear charge
charge equal to the charge minus the shielding
effective nuclear charge
is cation or anion smaller?
cation because has same charge but less e, so each e pulled closer
ionic size across a period, ionic size down a group
decreases and increases
same number of electrons
isoelectronic series
energy needed to remove an electron
ionization energy
these electrons are more easily removed, outer or inner
outer
ionization energy across a period, ionization energy down a group
increases and decreases
it takes extra energy to remove an electron when?
when subshell filled or half filled
energy needed to add an electron to an atom or ion in gas phase
electron affinity
when you add an e to an element
electron affinity
electron affinity across a period, down a group
becomes more negative, very little change
electronegativity across a period and down a group
increases across, decreases down
metallic character across and down
metallic character decreases across, increases down
measures the ease with which an atom gains an electron
electron affinity
force holding atom or ions together
chemical bond
electrostatic force between ions of opposite charge
ionic bond
sharing of electrons between two bonded atoms
covalent bond
bond found in metals
metallic bond
NH4
1+
OH
-1
CN
-1
NO3
-1
MnO4
-1
CO3
-2
CrO4
-2
SO4
-2
PO4
-3
the change in energy when an ionic solid is seperated into isolated ions in the gas phase
lattice energy
melting point depends on
smaller radius means larger lattice means higher meltingg point
simplest compounds, contain only H and C
hydrocarbons
class of hydrocarbons, contains all single bonds
alkanes
class of hydrocarbons, contains double bond
alkenes
class of hydrocarbons with a triple bond
alkynes
equal sharing of electrons
nonpolar bond
unequal sharing of electrons
polar bond
tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself in a bond
electronegativity
this is the purest covalent bond
between two identical atoms
formal charge is equal to
number of valence minus (num lone pairs + 1/2 num bonding Es)
more than one lewis structure for fixed nuclear arrangement
resonance
1 and a half bonds
aromatic bonds