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106 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What accurately define shape and size of a molecules?
Bond angles and bond lengths
What is a bonding pair?
defines a region in which the electrons will most likely be fond
What is a nonbonding pair?
lone pair, defines an electron domain which is located principally on one atom
What produces an electron domain?
each nonbonding pair, single bond, or multiple bond
Whta produces the best arrangement for a given number of electrons?
the one that minimizes repulsions among thems
When and why do bond angles decrease?
they decrease when the number of nonbondinf electrons pairs increase because a bonding pair is attracted by both nuclei of the bonded atoms, but the nonbonding pair experiences less nucelar attraction so it its electron domain spreads out more
What is the the relationship between nonbonding electron domains and bonding angles?
electron domains for nonbonding electron pairs exert greater repulsive forces on adjacent electron domains and thus tend to compress bond angles
Who exerts a greater repulsive for on adjacent electron domains?
In general multiple bonds, but there are exceptions like NO3-
What is bond polarity?
a measure of how equally the electrons in a bon d are shared between the two atoms of the bond
when will bond polarity increase?
when the difference in electronegativity increase
What is a dipole moment?
measure of the amount of charge seperation in the molecule, depends on both the polartities of individual bonds and the geometry of the molecule
what is a bond dipole?
the dipole moment that is due only to the two atos in that bond
what is hybridization?
the process of mixing atomic orbitals as atoms approach eash other to form bonds
What is bond order? What does a bond order of 1,2 or 3 represent?
single bond, double bond, triple bond,
What are dipole-dipole forces?
neutral polar molecules attract each other when the positive end of one molecules is near the negative end of another
What are london dispersion forces?
electrons repel one another so the motions of electrons on one atom influence the motions of electrons on its neighbor, thus the temporary dipole on one atom can induce a similar temproary dipole on an adjaccent atom causing the atoms to be attracted to each other. (the wave)
What is hydrogen bonding?
a special type of intermolecular attraction between the hydrpgen atom in a polaar bond (H-F, H-N, H-O) and an unshared electron pair on a nearby small electronegative ion or atom
Why is ice less dense than water?
molecules assume an ordered open arrangment which optimizes the hydrogen bonding interactions between molecules, so they create open cavitities
What is vicosity?
the resistance of a liquid to flow
How does one determine what intermolecular forces are at work?
*ions are involved, if both polar molcules and ions are present its ion-dipole forces, if not it is ionic
If no ions, but polar and hydrogenn its hydrogen bonds,
If no ions, polar, and no hydrogen bonds, then dipole dipole
If no ions, nonpolar its london
What is surface tension?
energy required to increase the surace area of liquid by a unit amoint
What does volatile mean?
A liquid will evaporate reasily
What is a crystalline solid?
things are ordered in well defined arangments
What is an amorpous solid?
particles habe orderly strucutre ie rubber and lass
What is a crystal lattice?
a three dimensional array of points that represents a crystalline solid
What are the fractions occupied by a unit cell in various positions?
corner 1/8
What are donor atoms?
the atom of the ligand boudn directly to the metal
What are monodentate ligands?
possess a single donor atom and are able to occupy only one site in a coordination sphere
What are polydentate ligands?
occupy multiple coordination sites also known as chelating agents
In naming salt which is given first?
the name of the action is given before the name of the anion
When is the metal named?
Within a cmplex ion or molecule the ligands are named before the metal, ligands are listed in alphabetical order regardless of charge, prefixes that give the number of ligands are not considered part of the ligand naming in considering order
How are the ligands named?
the names of anionic ligands end in the letter o whereas neutral ones ordinarily bear the name of the molecules
Azide (N3-)
Bromide (Br-)
chloride (Cl-)
Cyanide (CN-)
Fluoride (F-)
Hydroxide (OH-)
Carbonate (CO3 2-)
Oxalate (C2O4 2-)
Oxide (O 2-)
Ammonia (NH3)
Pyridine (C5H5N)
What indicated number?
Greek prefixes (di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa)
If it already has prefixes you use (bis, tris, tetrakis, pentakis, and hexakis) and put the substance in paranthesis
How is the complex named if it is an anion?
in -ate
Where is the oxidation number given?
given in parenthesis in roman numerals following the the name of the meatal
What are isomers?
same formula different properties, different arrangment of atoms
What are structural isomers?
have different bonds
What does a linear molecular shape look like? angles?
What does a trigonal planar molecular shape look like? angles?
What does a tetrahedral molecular shape look like? angles?
What does a trigonal bipyramidal look like? angles?
120, 90, 180
What does an octahedral look like? angles?
90, 180
What are the electron domain geometries?
linear, trigonal planar, tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal, octahedral
If there are no lone pairs on central atoms how will the shapes align?
so that atoms are as far apart as possible
How is the lone pair drawn in?
takes the place of the next shape up
How do you determine which structure is best?
lp-bp,bp-bp,lp-lp, don't want lone par interactions, count interactions that are 90 degrees apart or less
What is the bond angles for NH3
106.5 because has lone pars
What is bond angle of water?
104.5 because has more lone pairs
What is the bond angle of COCl2?
111.8 because has double bond
Where do covalent bonds come from?
the overlap of orbitals
What is the hybridization for linear?
What is the hybridization for trigonal planar?
What is the hybridization for tetrahedral?
What is the hybridization for trig bipy?
What is the hybridization for octahedral?
Which bond is stronger?
sigma because pi has less energy so weaker because it does not overlap as well
Why would it be better to have formal charges at times?
may allow for pi bonds
What happens when there is resonance?
delocalized bonding
What does a higher bond order mean?
stronger short bonds
What is the coordination number?
the number of ligands connected to the central atom
Which conducts electricity?
ionic, not covalent
How do you determine the number of d electrons
(group number-oxidation started)
What are linkage isomers?
structural, can have the ions bind from different places on the substance ie SCN, can bind from the S or N
What are coordination-sphere isomers?
structural, there are different ligands in the coordination sphere ie CrCl36H2O
What are geometrics isomers?
stereoisomers, arrange stuff differently
What are optical isomers?
same, but mirror images
What do trans and cis mean?
cis-next to
trans-across from
When is something chiral?
pair or identical trans to another other, two identical cis ligands that trans another pair of identical cis ligands
What is the crystal field theory?
accounts for color and magnetism of transition metal complexes
What happens when there is a split?
__ __((dz^2, dx^2-y^2) up in energy
__ __ __ (dxy,dxz,dyz) down in energy
What determines what kind of light is absorbed?
splitting because it determines energy
What is the spectrochemical series?
so the smaller splitting the lower the energy
What does low-spin mean?
paired, large splitting, won't jump up
What does high spin mean?
small splitting so more theings are unpaired, will jump up
What are the forces that hokd molecules together in a liquid or a solid which do not act significantly in a gas?
intermolecular forces
Ionic bonding?
NaCl, very strong
Where are ion-dipole forces founed?
not in pure substances, in solution
What do strong molecular forces mean?
high boiling, melting poitn
What molecules normally have higher boiling points?
heavier molecules due to london dispersion forces
Why is the bp of water so much higher?
because of the hydrogen bonds, can bond in two spots not just one
What is deposition?
gas to solid ie frost
What vaporization?
liquid to gas
What is condensation?
gas to liquid ie dew
What is melting?
solid to liquid
Whaty is freezing?
Liquid to solid
What is sublimation?
solid to gas ie ice cube
What info can we get from the curve of water?
delta h for melting (B)
Hvap (D to E)
specific heat (c-d gives joules)
J/grams degree celsius
What happends when a substance boils?
bubble forms but has to push back atmosphere so to rise it must be equal or greater to atmospheric pressure
What are units for Hvap?
What is the clausius clapeyron equation?
ln(p2/p2)=delta h/R(1/t1-1/t2)
What is the triple point?
All three
What is the critical point
Everything goes to shit after that
What does primitive cubic, body centered cubic, face centered?
everything on edge (1) e=2r, 1 atom in center (2), on face as well (4) e=4r