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101 Cards in this Set

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percentage error
percentage error= value experimented-value accepted / value accepted * 100
accuracy
refers to the closeness of measurements to the correct or acccepted value of the quantity measured
precision
refers to the closeness of a set of measurements of the sam quantity made in the same way
darts within small area
high precision
area centered on bulls eye
high accuracy
darts within small area
high precision
area far from bullseye
low accuracy
darts within large area
low precision
significant does not mean
certain
in a measurement consist of all the digits known with certainty plus one final digit which is uncertain or estimated
significant number
TABLE 3
studyyyyyyyy it
adding & subtracting
answer same number of digits to the number witht the least amnt of digits to right of decimal pt.
for rounding whole #s (without decimal pts.)
round answer so that the final sign. digit is in the same place as the leftmost uncertain digit
(5400 + 365= 5800)
density = ?
mass / volume
? / volume = density
mass
multiplication/ divison rounding rules
the answer can have mo more significant numbers than are in the measurement with thte fewest significant numbers
4 steps to solving problems
analyze plan compute evaluate
direct proportion
describes 2 quantities when divided one by the other gives a constant value
inverse proportion
describes 2 quantities when multiplied by each other gives a constant value
refers to the closeness of a measurement to the correctto the correct or accepted value
accuracy
refers to the closeness of calues for a set of measurements
precision
the difference between the experimental and the accepted value that is divided by the accepted value and then mult. by 100
percentage error
the significant figures in a number consist of
all digits known with certainty plus one final digit, which is uncertain
t/f exact conversion factors are completely CERTAIN and DO NOT LIMIT THE NUMBER OF DIGITS IN A CALC.
true
a number written in scient. not. is of the form ___________ in which M is ___ or ____ to1 but ___ less than ___ and n is an ____
M X 10 n;
less =;
integer
two quantities are direct. proport if _______________ constant value
dividing one by the other gives a constant value
two quantities are inversely proportional to each other if _______ constant value
their product has a constant value
a logical approach to solving problems that lend themselves to investigation
scientific method
testable statement that serves as the basis for predictions and further experiments
hypothesis
broad generalization that explains a body of known facts or phenomena
theory
the result of every measurement is ____ and ___
number

& a unit
the ______ system of measurement is used in science.
SI
how many base units in SI system
7
length
meter
mass
kilogram
time
second
temperature
kelvin
amount of substance
mole
electric current
ampere
luminous intensity
candela
measure of the gravitational pull on matter
weight
area
square meter
volume
cubic meter
sq. meter and cubic meter ex. of _____
derived units
ratio of mass to volume
density
wht are conv. factors used for?
to convert from one unit to another
how do you convert from one unit to another?
by conversion factors
the use of senses to obtain info
observe
numerical info
quantitative
non-numerical info
qualitive
a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation
system
when u observe a reaction in test tube test tube and contents form
system
what does exper. involve to make observations and collect data
carrying out a procedure under controlled conditions
scientists have to do wht to make a hypothesis
make generalizations about data
stages in scient method ...
observing, formulating hypothesis, testing, theorizing, publish results
the experimental conditions that remain constant
controls
any condition that changes
variable
effects of wht usually causes change?
variable
hypothesis has to be changed if.
testing reveals that the prediction was incorrect
more than a phys object
model
often an explanation of how phenomena occur and how data / events related
model
models may be
visual, verbal, mathematical
one imp model in chem is
atomic model - matter is omposed of tiny particles called atoms
if a model successfully explains many phenomena, wht might happen?
become part of a theory
when are theories considered successful
if they can predict the results of many new experiments
kinetic molecular and collision theory
ex. of imp theories
something that has magnitude size or amount
quantity
________ represent quantities
measurements
teaspoon is _____
volume is ______
unit of measurement;
quantity
combos of SI base units form ________
derived units
length
l
mass
M
time
t
temperature
T
amount of substance
mole
electric current
ampere
luminous intensity
I(sub v)
M
mega
10^6
k
kilo
10 ^3
d
deci
10 ^ -1
c
centi
10 ^-2
m
milli
10 ^ -3
u
micro
10 ^ -6
n
nano
10 ^ -9
p
pico
10 ^ -12
A
area
square meter
m^2
V
volume
cubic meter
m^3
D
density
kilograms per cubic meter
kg/m^3
M
molar mass
kilograms per mole
kg/mol
V(sub m)
molar volume
cubic meters per mole
m^3/mol
E
energy
joule
J
amount of space occupied by an object
volume
derived SI unit of volume
cubic meters, m^3
name pascal gives name for pressure
pa
1 L = ___ cm^3
1000
ml = ________
cubic centimeter
kg/m^3 or g/L
density
density is a ___ property of a substance
physical
does size affect density
no
ratio derived from equality between 2 diff units that can be used from one unit to the other
conversion factor
a mathematical technique that allows you to use units to solve problems involving measurements
dimensional analysis