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### 23 Cards in this Set

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 Calculation of reaction rate Delta C Ct-Co rate=_______=_________ Delta T Delta T Spontaneous processes processes that take place naturally with no apparent cause of stimulus Exergonic processes that give up energy. Energy out. Endergonic processes that gain energy. Energy in. Entropy a measurement or indication of the disorder or randomness of a system. The more disorderly a system is, the higher its entropy. Three ways energy and entropy influence the spontaneity of processes 1. A process will always be spontanious if the energy decreases and the entropy increases 2. when a spontanious process is accompanied by an energy increse, a large entropy increase must also occur. 3. a spontanious process accompanied by an entropy decrease must also be accompanied by a compensating energy decrease. stable substance: a substance that does not undergo spontanious changes under the surrounding conditions. reaction rate: The speed of a reaction Reaction Mechanism the explanation of how a reaction occurs Reaction Mechanisms are based on the following three assumptions 1. reactant particles must collide with one another in order for a reaction to occur. 2. particles must collide with at least a certain minimum total amount of energy if the collision is to result in a reaction. 3. In some cases, colliding reactants must be orientated in a specific way if a reaction is to occur. internal energy The energy associated with vibrations within molecules. Activation Energy Energy needed to start some spontanious processes. Once started, the process continues without further stimulus or energy from an outside sorce. Effective collisions collisions with the capability to cause a reaction to occur Catalyst a substances that changes (usually increases) reaction rates without being used up in the reaction Inhibitor A substances that decreaes reaction rate. Homogenious Catalyst A catalytic substance that is distributed uniformly throughout the reaction mixture. Heterogenious or surface catalyst a catalytic substance normally used in the form of a solid with a large surface area on which reactions take place. state of equilibrium a condition in a reaction system when the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal Equilibrium Concentrations the unchanging concentrations of reactants and products in a reaction system that is in a state of equilibrium. position of equalibrium an indication of the relative amounts of reactants and products present at equilibrium Equilibrium expression An equation relating the equilibrium constant and reactant and product equilibrium concentrations Equilibrium constant A numerical relationship between reactant and product concentrations in a reaction at equilibrium Le Chateliers principle The position of an equilibrium shifts in responce to changes made in factors of the equilibrium.