Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/43

Click to flip

43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Plasma Sodium
135 - 145 mmol/L
Plasma Potassium
3.5 - 5.0 mmol/L
Urine Potassium
20 - 120 mmol/day
Plasma Chloride
98 - 108 mmol/L
Plasma Bicarb
20 - 30 mmol/L
Anion Gap
Na - (Cl + HCO3)
4 - 14 mmol/L
pH
7.35 - 7.45
bicarb to carbonic acid ratio
20:1
pCO2
35 - 45 mmHg
[HCO3]
22 - 26 mmol/L
pO2
80 - 100 mmHg
glucose (fasting)
3.6 - 6.0 mmol/L
CK
- male
- female
- male: <165 U/L
- female: <140 U/L
LD
< 220 U/L
troponin
<0.6 ug/L neg for MI
0.06-0.49 ug/L low level pos
>0.49 ug/L critical value
plasma total bilirubin
<25 umol/L
plasma direct bilirubin
<5 umol/L
prehepatic jaundice
- inc. rate of hemolysis
Plasma/serum:
- Tbil: inc.
- Dbil: norm
- uncon. bil: inc.

Urine:
- urobili: inc
- bili: norm

Feces:
- norm pigment
hepatic jaundice
- defect in one of the steps used to process the bili in the liver
types of hepatic jaundice
1) Decreased uptake
2) defective conjugation
3) impaired excretion
4) liver cell injury
posthepatic jaundice
- impaired excretion
Gilbert's Disease
- intra-hepatic jaundice
- prob. with transport of albumin bound bili into hepatocyte

Plasma/serum:
- tbil: inc.
- dbil: norm
- unbil: inc.

urine:
- uro: norm
- bili: norm

feces:
- norm pigment
Intra-hepatic jaundice:
b) Defective Conjugation
eg. Crigler-Najjar syndrome and neonatal jaundice
- either defect in UDPG or insufficient amounts

plasma/serum:
- tbil: inc.
- dil: norm
- unbil: inc.

urine:
- uro: norm
- bili: norm

feces:
- dec. pigment
intra-hepatic jaundice
c) Impaired excretion
eg. Dubin-Johnson syndrome
- prob. with excretion of conbili into bile duct

plasma/serum:
- tbil: inc.
- dbil: inc.
- unbil: norm

urine:
- uro: norm
- bili: inc.

feces:
- dec. pigment
intra-hepatic jaundice
d) liver cell injury
e.g. hepatitis
- damage to hepatocytes

plasma/serum:
- tbil: inc.
- dbil: inc.
- unbil: inc.

urine:
- uro: inc.
- bili: inc.

feces:
- norm to light brown
post-hepatic jaundice
plasma/serum:
- tbil: inc.
- dbil: inc.
- unbil: norm

urine:
- uro: norm
- bili: very inc.

feces:
- dec. pigment
total protein
60 - 80 g/L
albumin
35 - 50 g/L
ALP
< 125 U/L
diagnosis of cholestasis
GGT
male
female
male: <49 U/L
female: <31 U/L
AST
< 36 U/L

sensitive for heptacellular disease
ALT
male
female
male: < 50 U/L
female: < 36 U/L
calcium
2.10 - 2.60 mmol/L
phosphorus
0.8 - 1.5 mmol/L
magnesium
0.7 - 1.2 mmol/L
urea
2 - 9 mmol/L
uric acid
male
female
male: 150 - 430 umol/L
female: 140 - 360 umol/L
creatinine
male
female
male: 45 - 110 umol/L
female: 45 - 90 umol/L
urine creatinine
male
female
male: 8.8 - 17.7 mmol/day
female: 7.1 - 15.9 mmol/day
Urine osmolality
> 850 mOsm/kg
plasma/serum osmolality
275 - 300 mOsm/kg
creatinine clearance (ml/min)
92 - 132 ml/min
creatinine clearance (ml/sec)
1.0 - 2.0 ml/sec