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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
homogenous mixture of two or more compounds in a single phase such as solid liquid or gas
compound which there is more of in a solution
compound which there is less of in a solution
ideal solutions
compounds can be interchanged within the solution without changing the spatial arrangement of molecules
ideally dilute solutions
solute molecules are completely separated y solvent molecules so that they have no interaction with each other
-liek a solution only the solute particles are larger
-colloid particles are usually too small to be filtered but large enough to be separated by semipermeable membrane (dialysis)
-colloidal suspensions will scatter light unlike a true solution (Tyndall effect)
-may be attracted (lyophillic) or repelled (lyophobic) by their dispersion medium
Like dissolves like
polar dissolves polar,
nonpolar dissolves nonpolar
London dispersion forces
forces responsible for nonpolar molecules held together by weak intermolecular bonds resulting in instantaneous dipole movements (induced dipoles)
when ionic compounds dissolve and break up into cations and anions and are surrounded by charged ends of polar solvent
(H20 is good polar solvent)
when several water molecules attach to one side of ionic compound and break ionic bond, molecules are now in aqueous phase
N02 -
NO3 -
SO3 2-
SO4 2-
ClO2 -
ClO3 -
CO3 2-
HCO3 -
PO4 3-
a compound which forms ions in aqueous solutions and is able to conduct electricity
Molarity M
moles of compoud/volume of solution
Molality m
moles of solute/ kilograms of solvent
mole fraction X
moles of a compound/total moles of all species in solution
mass percentage
100 times ration of mass of solute to total mass of solution
Parts per million
10^6 times the ration of mass of solute to total mass of solution1`
lecture question 73
What is the approximate molarity of a Nacl solution with a specific gravity of 1.006
specific gravity of water is 1, if it is greater than 1, then x-1 will be the mass added

so .006 kg was added, or 6 g, which is 1/10 of a mole
lecture question 75
which is most concentrated
1m NaCl
1M NaCl
remember molarity is # moles over solution which is solute + solvent while molality is # moles over solvent only, so molality is less concentrated
breaking and forming bonds
breaking bonds requires energy (endothermic), forming bonds releases energy (exothermic)
heat of solution
overall change in energy of a reaction as a result of breaking and forming bonds is equal to enthalpy

negative heat of solution= stronger intermolecular bonds
positive heat of solution= weaker intermolecular bonds

-when solutions form entropy increases
vapor pressure
-when amount of molecules moving from liquid to gas equals the amount moving from gas to liquid (equillibrium)
-related to kinetic energy of molecules thus affected by temperature
-vapor pressure = atmospheric pressure
-vapor pressure = atmospheric pressure
-vapor pressure of a solid equalds the vapor pressure of the liquid
Raoults Law for nonvolatile (no vapor pressure solutes)
vapor pressure of slution =mole fraction of liquid a vapor pressure of liquid A
Raoults Law for volatile solutes
Pv=XaPa + XbPb
each Xp term equals the partial vapor pressure
Deviation from Raoluts Law for non-ideal solutions
-for nonideal solutions intermolecular forces between molecules will be changed
-for + heat of solution, weaker bonds are formed, more bonds can be broken and more molecules can escape from surface, there will be a positive deviation from raoults law

-for negative heat of solution, stronger intermolecular bonds, less bonds leave surface, less vapor pressure than expected from raoluts law
heat of hydration
separation of water molecules and formation of bonds between ions and water molecules
Lecture question 83:
Vapor pressures in solutions
Vapor pressures may be less than one of the pure liquids but not both
Lecture Question 86: Vapor pressures in ideal solutions
In an ideal solution, vapor pressure will be in between vapor pressures of solute and solvent
solutes tendency to dissolve in a solvent,
reverse reacion: precipitation
rate of dissolution is equal to rate of precipitation
solubility product or equillibrium constate for equillibrium of solvation

-use Ksp like any other equillibrium constant equal to products over reactants (no solids or pure liquids)
Solubility and Solubility product
-solubility product = ksp a constant
depends on temperature!

solubility: the maximum number of moles of solute that can dissolve in solution
-depends on common ions in solution and temperature
Using Ksp to determine solubility
set Ksp equal to ions in solution and their respected coefficients
-assign variables as number of moles to concentration of ions in solution


BaF2-> Ba 2+(aq) + 2F-(aq)

Ksp= [Ba2+][F-]^2
ksp is given
2.4X10^-5= (x)(2x)^2

x= 1.8 x 10^-2 mol/L

That is the solubility of BaF2 in one liter of water at 25 degrees C.

If we add one mole of NaF it will completely dissociate to one mole Na+ one mole F-. It does not matter what order it is added..
Na+ is a spectator ion but
F- causes a common ion effect

pushes equillibrium to the left so BaF2 is less soluble

modifly solubility equation
add +1 bc there is already 1 mole of F- from NaF
-drop 2x bc it will be much less than one..and find new solubility
NO3- (nitrate)
NH4+ (ammonium)
alkali metals
very soluble!
Ionic compounds with halogens Cl- Br- and I-

except for silver mercury and lead (Ag+, Hg2 2+, Pb2+) not soluble
Sulfate compounds (SO4 2-)
soluble except for mercury lead and heavier alkaline metals
Heavier alkaline metals (Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+)
soluble when with OH or Sulfides (S2-) but not with sulfates!
Carbonates, phosphates, sulfides, and hydroxides (CO3 2-, PO4 3-, S2-1, OH-)
-generally insoluble except for mentioned exceptions
Solubility Factors:
Henry's Law Vs. Rault's Law
Henry's Law: Pv=Xaka2
Raults Law: Pv=XaPa
Xa= mole fraction

Pa does not equal Ka2, use each law in specific conditions

Henry's Law: -relates vapor partial pressure of a gas directly proportional to its solubility

-use when looking at the vapor partial pressure of a volatile solute where the solute has a low concetration

-Rault's Law: most accurate when looking at the vapor partial pressure of a solvent with high concentration because in this case it behaves more like a pure substance

Raults Law: high solvent conc
Henry's Law: low solute concentration, vapor pressure not proportional to when it is pure!!
Temperature increases for solutions and other factors that affect solubility
-solubility of salts increase as temperature increases
-solubility of gas decreases with temperature increases
-gases that are larger experience greater van der waals forces and are more soluble, gases that chemically react with solvent are more soluble
-low temp high pressure increases gas solubility
Question 86: A 25ml sample of hard water is titrated with a .001m solution of EDTA and the endpoint of the titration is reached at 50ml of EDTA addded. What is the concentration of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+
Since its a one to one ratio in the reactoin you can: