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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
States the results of many experiments
Anything that has mass and takes up space
Pure (Substance)
matter that has a uniform and definate composition...2 types
**element- simplest forms of matter
**cpd-substance that can be separated into simpler substances only by chemical means
physical properties
quality that can be observed or measured without changing the composition (color, solubility, odor, hardness, melting point, boiling point)
physical change
cutting, grinding, crush, bend... doesnt change composition
chemical properties
ability of a substance to undergo a chemical reaction and to form new substance (rusting, burn, rot, decompose, explode, corrode)
homogeneous-uniform in composition

heterogeneous- different parts (salad)
density= mass/volume
law of conservation of mass
you can niether destroy or create mass
method of determining a metal
find density using displacement to a known figure
metric system
precison vs accuracy
precision-same measurment over and over again (not necessarily right)
accuracy- measurment compared to a true value
parts of an atom
proton, electron, neutron
proton and neutron= mass of atom
protons dont change
an isotope has a different number of e- than other isotopes of the sam element
group vs period
group- column
period- row
# of neutrons
mass- protons
atoms of sam element that have the same atomic number but different atomic masses due to a different number of neutrons
Dalton's atomic theory
1) all elements have atoms
2) atoms of the same elemnt are identicle
3) atoms can be physically and chemically combined
4) chem reactions occur when atoms are sep, joined or rearranged
apllicable parts of atomic theory
all parts still applicable but now we know that atoms are divisible into subatomic particles
states of matter
solid, liquid, gas
12-atomic # (protons)
Mg-chem symbol
Magnesium- element
24.305- atoic mass (mass-protons=neu)
average atomic mass
of isotope...
[(mass #1)(%)(mass #2)(%)etc]/1000
ion vs isotope vs atom
ion has a charge
isotope has a different number of neutrons
atom is original state
BOhr Model
energy level
flaw: fixed paths that e- travel in
Rutherford Model
flaw: electrons dont move...electrons would attract to the nucleus and force the atom to collapse
Quantum mechanical model
primarily mathematical
probablility of where an e- could be
how does energy of an electron change when the electron moves closer to the nucleus?
it decreases
group with highest electronegativity?
energy formula
speed of light formula?
(-) ion size
larger because there is more of a negative charge so it isnt as drawn to the nucleus
(+) ion size
smaller because the electrons are pulled to the stronger positie charge
polyvalent metal
A huge Single Cup of Coffee with Cream
Hg, Sn, Cu, Pb, Co, Fe, Cr, Mn
smush vs slide
slide- charges are different in #, slide to subscript position

smush- charges are the same in #
naming binary cpds
*write name of cation (charge if polyvalent)
*write name of anion and change ending to ide
naming ternary cpds
same as binary but for the anion write name of the polyatomic ion
naming molecular cpds
no charge...\
*use greek prefixes
*2nd element ends in -ide
molar mass
sum of atomic masses of the atoms in an element
**multiply atomic mass by amount of atom
**add all elements together
percent comp
individual percents of each element
**divide the mass of element by the total molar mass and then multiply by 100
octet rule exceptions
boron b/c only 3 spots to bond (BF3)

odd number of valence e- (NO2)

acess to empty D orbital(3rd PEL & up,)(PI5)
bond polar
polar if electrons are shared unequally

nonpolar if its a diatomic molecule
molecule polar
nonpolar if electrons are going to different places ex: CCl4

polar if they are all going to the same place ex: h2o