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43 Cards in this Set

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What is the origin of lines in the atomic spectra?
Electrons falling back to the ground state.
Can you have a continuous range of energies in the atomic spectra?
No, you can only have certain definite energies.
What do the wave functions of Schrodinger's equation describe?
The energy and position of the electrons, which are thought of as waves
What are the four quantum numbers?
n: principle quantum number

l: angular momentum quantum number

ml: magnetic quantum number

ms: spin angular momentum quantum number
What does the principle quantum number represent?
The atomic shells
What does the angular momentum quantum number represent?
The shape of the orbital
What does the magnetic quantum number represent?
The spatial orientation of the magnetic number - the direction along the x, y, and z axes

(in other words, there is only one sort of s-orbital, there are three types of p-orbital, there are five types of d-orbital, etc.)
Construct a diagram showing the relationship of the quantum numbers.
n = 1
l = s
ml = 0
ms = +0.5, -0.5

n= 2
l = s,p
ml = 0 for the s, 010 for the p
ms = +0.5, -0.5 for each
What is the Pauli exclusion principle?
No more than two electrons may occupy any orbital.
What is Heisenberg's uncertainty principle?
We cannot know both the exact position and the exact momentum of an electron simultaneously
What is the nodal surface?
Region between the 1s and the 2s orbital where there is no electron density at all
What is the nodal plane?
Region without any electron density between the 2p orbitals.
Can an electron be found in the middle of hte p orbital?
No, never
Is the 1s orbital the middle part of the s2 orbital?
No
What is the Aufbau principle?
Electrons are put in orbitals until they are full and then electrons fill up the orbital with the next lowest energy.
Are the 2s and 2p orbitals degenerate?
Yes
What type of energy does is required to put two electrons into the same orbital with their spins paired?
Pairing energy
What are molecular orbitals?
Combine the atomic orbitals of the atoms to make up the molecule
What is the bonding molecular orbital?
Combines orbitals in-phase to lower their energy relative to the 1s atomic orbital
What is the antibonding molecular orbital?
Combines electrons that are out-of-phase in the orbital, hindering the bonding and creating higher energy than the 1s orbital.
What is bond order calculated?
number of electrons in bonding molecular orbitals - number of electrons in antibonding molecular orbitals / 2
How are sigma orbitals, (giving rise to sigma bonds), connected?
End-on overlap to give cylindrical symmetry
What does the side-on overlap of two 2p atomic orbitals give rise to?
The 2p pie bonding molecular orbital
Is more overlap possible when the atomic orbitals overlap end-on or side-on?
End-on
Is the p-sigma or the p-pie bond lower in energy?
The p-sigma
What is a single bond made of?
A sigma bond
What is a double bond made of?
A sigma bond and a pie bond.
What is a triple bond made of?
A sigma bond and two pie bonds
Is F or Li more electronegative?
F
If the energies of the atomic orbitals are both the same, what type of bond is formed?
A purely covalent bond
If the energies of the atomic orbitals are both the same, what is it easiest to break the bond into?
Two radicals, by homolytic fission
If the atomic orbital on atom Bi s a little lower in energy than the atomic orbital on atom A, then what type of bond is likely to form?
A covalent bond with some electrostatic, (ionic), attraction
If the atomic orbital on atom Bi s a little lower in energy than the atomic orbital on atom A, what is it easiest to break the bond into?
Two ions, A+ and B-
If the atomic orbital on atom B is a lot lower in energy than the atomic orbital on atom A, what type of bond is likely to form?
Ionic bond
If the atomic orbital on atom B is a lot lower in energy than the atomic orbital on atom A, what is it easiest to break the bond into?
Compounds already exist as ions A+ and B-, so ions
Do p-orbitals overlap better end-on, (sigma bond), or side-on, (pie bond)?
End-on, forming a sigma bond
Can 2px combine with any of the other 2p orbitals?
No, because they are orthogonal
Describe the different hybridizations of the carbons.
Carbon is linear - sp hybridized

Carbon is trigonal - sp^2 hybridized

Carbon is tetrahedral - sp^3 hybridized
What does isoelectronic mean?
Total number of bonding electrons
What is the hybridization of alkenes?
sp^2, because they have a planar trigonal framework
What is the hybridization of imines?
sp^2, because they have a planar trigonal framework from the carbon atom as well as the nitrogen atom
What type of hybridization do carbonyl compounds have?
sp^2, because they have a planar trigonal framework
What are the hybridizations of single, double, and triple bonds?
Single: s

Double: sp^2

Triple: sp