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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is quinine from and what is it used to treat?
"Jesuit" Bark of the South American cinchona tree; used to treat fevers, especially malaria
What are the two functional groups that all amino acids possess?
An amino group, (NH2), and a carboxylic acid group, (CO2H)
What is the angle of the zig zags of a hydrocarbon when carbon is single-bonded.
109 degrees
What is the angel of the zig zags of a hydrocarbon when carbon is double-bonded.
120 degrees
What are the first ten prefixes for the hydrocarbons?
1. meth
2. eth
3. prop
4. but
5. pent
6. hex
7. hept
8. oct
9. non
10. dec
In diagram 1, which does Bu represent?
The second
What is an aromatic?
Any compound containing a benzene ring or related ring system
What can "Ar" represent?
Any substituted phenyl ring; (phenyl with any number of the hydrogen atoms replaced by other groups)
What does the isopropyl group look like?
See diagram 2
What does the isobutyl, (i-Bu), group look like?
See diagram 3.
What does the sec-butyl, (s-Bu), group look like?
See diagram 4.
What does the tert-butyl, (t-Bu), group look like?
See diagram 5
What are alcohols?
Compounds containing the hydroxyl gropu
What functional group do alkanes have?
None
What are some characteristics of alkanes?
- Extremely unreactive
- Often used as solvents, especially for purification of organic compounds
- Burn well
Describe the structure of alkenes, (olefins).
Contain C=C double bonds
Describe the structure of alkynes.
Contain C to C triple bonds; linear
Are alkynes widespread?
No
Which are saturated, alkanes or alkenes?
Alkanes, because they do not contain a double bond to break
How does the liver detoxify organic compounds?
Repeatedly hydroxylates them until they are water-soluble
Describe the structure of ethers.
Contain an alkoxyl group, (-OR)

R - O - R
What does the everyday name 'ether' denote?
Diethyl ether; Et2O
Describe the structure of amines.
Contain the amino group, (NH2)

R-NH2
Describe the structure of nitro compounds.
Contain the nitro group NO2

R-NO2
What is a characteristic of nitro groups?
Several added to one molecule can make it quite unstable and even explosive
Describe the structure of alkyl halides.
Contain the fluoro, chloro, bromo, or ido groups

R-F, R-Cl, R-Br, or R-I
Describe the structure of aldehydes.
Contain the carbonyl group

R-CHO
Describe the structure of ketones.
Contain the carbonyl group

R-CO-R`
How can aldehydes be formed?
By oxidizing alcohols; (the liver detoxifies ethanol in the bloodstream by oxidizing it first to acetaldehyde
Describe the structure of carboxylic acids.
Contain the carboxyl group CO2H.

R-CO2H
What are some characteristics of carboxylic acids?
- Can react with bases , losing a proton to form a carboxylate salt
- Have sharp flavours
Describe the structure of esters.
Contain a carboxyl group with an extra alkyl group

R-CO2R
What type of compound are fats?
Esters that contain three ester groups.
Draw the functional group that amides contain.
See diagram 6.
Describe the structure of nitriles or cyanides.
Contain the cyano group

R-CN
Describe the structure of acyl chlorides.
R-COCl
What is a characteristic of acyl chlorides?
Too reactive to be found in nature
Describe the structure of acetyls.
Two single bonded oxygen atoms attached to the same carbon
What are heteroatoms?
Non-carbons
Describe the alkane oxidation level.
Zero heteroatom bonds

Includes:
alkanes
Describe the alcohol oxidation level.
One heteroatom bond

Includes:
alcohols
ethers
amines
alkyl halides
alkenes
Describe the aldehyde oxidation level.
Two heteroatom bonds

Includes:
aldehydes
ketones
acetyls
Describe the carboxylic acid oxidation level.
Three heteroatom bonds

Includes:
carboxylic acids
esters
amides
nitriles
acyl chlorides
What is the suffix for alcohols?
-ol
What is the suffix for aldehydes?
-al
What is the suffix for ketones?
-one
What is the suffix for carboxylic acids?
-ic acid
What is the suffix for cyanides?
-rile
What is the suffix for alkyl chlorides?
- oyl chloride/flouride/bromide/iodide
What is the prefix for the nitro group?
nitro
How are the functional groups distributed for ortho compounds?
1,2
How are the functional groups distributed for meta compounds?
1,3
How are the functional groups distributed for para compounds?
1,4
What is the abbreviation for acetic acid?
AcOH
What is the abbreviation for ethyl acetate?
EtOAc