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43 Cards in this Set

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Solutions
2 parts
solute
solvent
Solute
Material Present in lesser amount- being dissolved
Solvent
greater amount- does the dissoving
Aqueous Solution
Water is the solvent
Saturated Solution
The max. amount of solute that can dissolve in a solvent at a given temp. (solubility
Super Saturated Solution
More amount of a solute than there normally is at a given temp.
Crystallization
When an excess solute comes out of a solution it crysatllizes
Unsaturated Solution
Less solute than there normally is at a temp.
Missable
Mixing liquids in all proportions
Immissable
Liquids that do not dissolve in one another-
Immissibility caused by:
a difference in polarity of substances being mixed
Raising the temp of solids
increases solubility
Raising temp of gas + solid
solubility decreases
Caligative Properties
When solvent is contaminated with a solute
Raising temp of liquid
raises vapor pressure
Non- Electrolyte
When put in water does NOT conduct electricity
Electrolyte
When put in water DOES conduct electricity
Reverse Osmosis
Force water through semi-permeable membrane by high force reduces the amount of minerals in water
Nature of Chem.Reactions
Diff. Substances under same conditions react at diff times
Concentratiion of starting material (of reactants)
increasing concentration makes reactants react faster
Temp. Chem. reactions
Raising temp causes rate of reaction to increase
Subdivision
ability of reactants to meet or come together
Catalyst
increases rate of reaction w/o itself being consumed or used up- at end of reaction remains unchanged
Rate-Law Equation
Deals w/ concentration of starting materials only.
Collision Theory
Need proper orientation
Need energy to cause bond to form or break- "Activation Energy"
Reaction Mechanism
steps involved in going from starting material to a product
Slowest Reaction Mechanism step
Rate Determining Step
Catalized Energy is
less than uncatalized
Heterogeneous Catalyst
2 phases- solid and liquid or gas
Homogeneous Catalyst
one phase- gas or liquid
Enzymes
cause normal chemical reactions in your body to happen at a lower temp or rate
Dynamic Equilibrium
things are still going on and have not stopped, but they are not going to change
Kc=
equilibrium constant
Temp is always
IN KELVINS!!!
Kc >> 1
Products favored
Kc << 1
Reactants Favored
Kc = 1
Systems are the same
Le Chatelier's Principle
If a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system will shift to relieve the stress
Increase in pressure on gas
volume decreases
Increase pressure
system shifts in direction w/ lesser of volumes
**The only thing that Changes equilibrium value of a constant Kc is:
TEMPERATURE!!
Catalyst
gets system to equilibrium faster, but doesn't affect shifting
gets to product faster
Noble Gas
Doesn't react w/ any ingredients in equilibrium
- has no effect on position of equilibrium