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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
elected in 1960. Roman Catholic. Youthful. good-looking. questionable election returns from dead people. beautiful wife and family. appointed brotherRobert Kennedy as Attorney General. congressional opposition. urban renewal. mental retard help. to the moon...NASA.
Foreign Policy: peace corps, Bay of Pigs, Marshall Plan in Latin American, Berlin Wall, Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam.
Shot by Lee Harvey Oswalk in Dallas.
President from rural Texas. not highly educated or handsome or rich. Liberal, embaraced minorities, wanted opertunities for everyone. Lady Bird: active wife, completely opposite of Jackie O. He was very experienced in government, knew how to get things done.
Campaign to end poverty and spread civil rights. Used sympathy vote for JFK to get bills passed. Used riches of rich as an embarassment to help the poor. Appalachain Development project. CRA of 1964; no more segregated public places. Affirmative action; black population of university should mirror state population. Voting Rights Act of 1965; made it illegal to deny voting rights based on race or literacy. CRA of 1968; illegal to deny selling your house on basis of race or sex
LBJ & The Great Society
Medical insurance from the government for the elderly. Pay percentage.

Medical plan to help people with low income. Free.
Medicare and Medicaid
get children better prepared for school. Preschool. Seaseme Street.
On October 1st, 1962, he became the first black student at the University of Mississippi after being barred from entering on September 20. His enrollment, opposed by Governor Ross Barnett, sparked riots on the Oxford campus, which required federal troops and U.S. Marshals, which were sent by President John F. Kennedy. The riots led to a violent clash which left two people dead, 48 soldiers injured and 30 U.S. Marshals with gun wounds. His actions are regarded as a pivotal moment in the history of civil rights. He graduated on August 18, 1963.
James Meredith
Student volunteers, African-American and white, rode in interstate buses into the pro-segregationist U.S. South to test the 1960 United States Supreme Court decision Boynton v. Virginia, 364 U.S. 454, which outlawed racial segregation in interstate public facilities, including bus stations.
"freedom rides"
The letter is a response to a statement made by eight white Alabama clergymen on April 12, 1963 titled "A Call For Unity" which agreed that social injustices were taking place but believed that the battles should be taken solely to the court not to the streets in order to better the city of Birmingham. King responded that without forceful, direct actions such as his, true civil rights could never be achieved. As he put it, "This wait has almost always meant 'never.'" He held that Civil Disobedience is justified in the face of unjust laws.
Martin Luther King and the letter from Birmingham jail.
The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a large political rally that took place on August 28, 1963. It was organized principally by A. Philip Randolph, Bayard Rustin and Martin Luther King Jr. During this March, King delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech at the Lincoln Memorial. Between 200,000 and 500,000 people were in attendance.
March on Washington
Freedom Summer was a campaign in the United States launched during the summer of 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in the southern states. Over 1,000 volunteers helped meet at Western College in Oxford, Ohio (Merged with Miami University) from organizations such as the Congress on Racial Equality and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. The program was aimed at Mississippi, where the African American population exceeded 45%, and only 5% voted. It registered 1,600 more blacks. The program also established many summer schools in Mississippi to try and counteract the state's inequitably-funded school system. Violence quickly hindered the campaign, however.
"freedom summer"
made it illegal to deny voters because of race of illiteracy. Supported the 15th Ammendment
Voting Rights Act of 1965
black population of a state university should mirror black population of state
Affrimative Action
an American jurist and the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States.
Thurgood Marshall
During his life, hewent from being a promising young student to a street-wise Boston hoodlum to one of the most prominent black nationalist leaders in the United States to a martyr of Islam. As a militant leader, he advocated black pride, economic self-reliance, and identity politics. He ultimately rose to become a world renowned African American/Pan-Africanist and human rights activist.
Malcom X
a controversial African American civil rights and self-defense organization active within the United States during the 1960s and 1970s. Founded by Huey P. Newton, Bobby Seale, and Richard Aoki in October 1966, the organization initially espoused a doctrine of armed resistance to societal oppression in the interest of African American justice, though its aims and philosophy changed radically throughout the party's existence.
Black Panthers
the site of the failed Invasion during John F. Kennedy's presidency - a 1961 US-backed invasion by Cuban exiles intent on overthrowing Fidel Castro, at a beach called Playa Giron. The incident may have been a driving force behind the Cuban Missile Crisis that took place the following year between Kennedy and Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev.
Bay Of Pigs
Conceived by the East German administration of Walter Ulbricht and approved by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, the wall was a long separation barrier between West Berlin and East Germany, which permanently closed the border between East and West Berlin for a period of 28 years. It was built during the post-World War II period of divided Germany, in an effort to stop the drain of labour and economic output associated with the daily migration of huge numbers of professionals and skilled workers between East and West Berlin, and the attendant defections, which had political and economic consequences for the Communist bloc. It effectively decreased emigration
Berlin Wall
a confrontation during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States regarding the Soviet deployment of nuclear missiles in Cuba. The crisis started on October 16, 1962, when U.S. reconnaissance was shown to U.S. President John F. Kennedy revealing Soviet nuclear missile installations on the island, and ended thirteen days later on October 28, 1962, when Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev announced that the installations would be dismantled
Cuban Missile Crisis
facilitated increased U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. The Resolution was approved by the House unanimously (416-0), and by the Senate 88-2, with Senators Wayne Morse of Oregon and Ernest Gruening of Alaska casting the only nay votes. Although there was never a formal declaration of war, the Resolution gave President Johnson approval "to take all necessary steps, including the use of armed force, to assist any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty requesting assistance in defense of its freedom." Both Johnson and President Richard Nixon used the Resolution as a justification for escalated involvement in Indochina.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
leader of North Vietnam during the Vietname war
Ho Chi Minh
n insurgent (partisan) organization fighting the Republic of Vietnam during the Vietnam War. The NLF was funded, equipped and staffed by both South Vietnamese and the army of North Vietnam.
Viet Cong
the phenomenon of something getting worse step by step, for example a quarrel, or, notably, military presence and nuclear armament during the Cold War.
was a series of operational offensives during the Vietnam War. The Tết Offensive resulted in a crushing operational defeat for the North Vietnamese.
Tet Offensive
April 4, 1968, at 6:01 p.m., on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee. Friends inside the motel room heard the shots fired and ran to the balcony to find King shot in the throat. He was pronounced dead at St. Joseph's Hospital at 7:05 p.m.. The assassination led to a nationwide wave of riots in more than 60 cities.[10] Five days later, President Lyndon B. Johnson declared a national day of mourning for the lost civil rights leader. A crowd of 300,000 attended his funeral that same day. Ray, a presumed white supremacist and segregationist, allegedly killed King because of the latter's extensive civil rights work.
MLK Jr. Assassination
as fatally wounded by a gunshot in Los Angeles on June 5, 1968, and died 25 hours later. The convicted assassin, 24-year-old Palestinian Sirhan B. Sirhan, attributed the killing to Kennedy's support for Israel during and after the Six-Day War, although there is no record of RFK supporting Israel during that period. On March 3, 1969, in a Los Angeles, California court, Sirhan admitted that he had killed Kennedy. Sirhan has since recanted, and as late as 1998 has sought a new trial
Robert Kennedy Assassination
n American politician who was elected Governor of Alabama as a Democrat four times (1962, 1970, 1974 and 1982) and ran for U.S. President four times as well (in 1964, 1968, 1972 and 1976). He is best known for his pro-segregation attitudes, which he later retracted, during the American desegregation period.
George Wallace
was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. He was also the 36th Vice President (1953–1961) serving under Dwight D. Eisenhower. Nixon redefined the office of Vice President, making it for the first time a high visibility platform and base for a presidential candidacy. He is the only person to have been elected twice to the Vice Presidency and twice to the Presidency, and the only president to have resigned that office. His resignation came in the face of imminent impeachment related to the Watergate first break-in and the subsequent Watergate scandal. Nixon is noted for his diplomatic accomplishments in foreign policy, especially relaxing relations with the Soviet Union and China, and ending the Vietnam War.
Richard Nixon
historically, a student activist movement in the United States that was one of the main iconic representations of that country's New Left. The organization developed and expanded rapidly in the mid-1960s before dissolving at its last convention in 1969.
SDS was the organizational high point for student radicalism in the United States, and thus has been an important influence on student organizing in the decades since its collapse. Participatory democracy, direct action, radicalism, student power, shoestring budgets, and its organizational structure are all present in varying degrees in current national student activist groups.
Students for a Democratic Society
a term originally used to describe some of the rebellious youth of the 1960s and 1970s

This movement was a reaction against the conservative social morals of the 1950s, the political conservatism (and perceived social repression) of the Cold War period, and the US government's extensive military intervention in Vietnam. Opposition to the war was exacerbated in the US by the compulsory military draft.
The 1960s youth rebellion largely originated on college campuses, emerging directly out of the American Civil Rights Movement. The Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley was one early example, as a socially privileged group of students began to identify themselves as having interests as a class that were at odds with the interests and practices of the university and its corporate sponsors.
famous for its role as a center of the 1960s hippie movement
Haight Ashbury
a slogan used by hippies in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a symbol of the non-violence ideology
flower power
an American farm worker, labor leader, and activist who co-founded the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers.
Cesar Chavez
name used to describe the radical lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered movement of the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s in North America, Western Europe, and Australia and New Zealand
Gay Liberation
The Feminine Mystique
Betty Friedan
a form of Difference feminism which emphasizes the traditional roles of women while also advocating their equality with men.
New Feminism
was a landmark United States Supreme Court case establishing that most laws against abortion violate a constitutional right to privacy, overturning all state laws outlawing or restricting abortion. It is one of the most controversial decisions in U.S. Supreme Court history.
Roe v. Wade
a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution that would guarantee equal rights under the law for Americans regardless of sex.
a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania-born zoologist and marine biologist whose landmark book, Silent Spring, is often credited with having launched the global environmental movement. Silent Spring had an immense effect in the United States, where it spurred a reversal in national pesticide policy.
Rachel Carson
name used by two different observances held annually in the (northern) spring, both intended to inspire awareness of and appreciation for the Earth's environment
Earth Day
he tanker hit Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef and spilled an estimated 11 to 30 million U.S. gallons of crude oil. As a result of the spill thousands of animals perished immediately.
Exxon Valdez
a massacre committed by U.S. soldiers on hundreds of unarmed Vietnamese civilians, mostly women and children, on March 16, 1968, in the village of My Lai, during the Vietnam War. It prompted widespread outrage around the world and reduced American support at home for the war in Vietnam.
My Lai
nickname given to a powerful herbicide and defoliant used by the U.S. military in its Herbicidal Warfare program during the Vietnam War. killed plants and people
Agent Orange
a military campaign during the Vietnam War involving a limited-objective invasion of Cambodia in 1970. The campaign was known officially in the U.S. Army as the Sanctuary Counteroffensive.
Cambodian incursion
involved the shooting of students by the Ohio National Guard on Monday, May 4, 1970. The altercation killed four students and wounded nine others.

A group of student protesters were confronted by the police and National Guardsmen. The police opened fire killing two students and injuring twelve.
The causes of the riots are believed to be the Vietnam War, the May 4 Kent State shootings, and racial tensions.
Kent State and Jackson State
Nixon's idea that the US should only withdraw from Vietnam when the US will look the least weak for doing so
Peace with Honor
30th April, the capture of the South Vietnamese capital of Saigon by the North Vietnamese Army on April 30, 1975. marked the end of the Vietnam War and the unification of the country under communist rule.
the fall of Saigon
first time a U.S. president had visited the People's Republic of China, which at the time did not maintain diplomatic relations with the U.S. At the conclusion of his trip, the United States and the PRC Governments issued the Shanghai Communiqué, a statement of their foreign policy views. In the Communiqué, both nations pledged to work toward the full normalization of diplomatic relations. The U.S. acknowledged the notion that all Chinese on both sides of the Taiwan Strait maintain that there is only one China and that Taiwan is part of China.
detente and Nixon's visit to China
supreme court descion that a person must be read their "right to remain silent"
Gideon v. Wainright
a landmark 5-4 decision of the United States Supreme Court which was argued February 28–March 1, 1966 and decided June 13, 1966. The Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.
Miranda v. Arizona
an important United States Supreme Court case dealing with the busing of students to promote integration in public schools. The Court held that busing was an appropriate remedy for the perceived problem of racial imbalance among schools, even where the imbalance resulted from the selection of students based on geographic proximity to the school, rather than from deliberate assignment based on race. This was done to ensure the schools would be "properly" integrated and that all students would receive equal educational opportunities regardless of their race.
Swann v. Charlotte Board of Education
In October 1972, The Washington Post reported the FBI had determined Nixon aides had spied on and sabotaged numerous Democratic presidential candidates as a part of the operations that led to the infamous Watergate scandal. During the campaign five burglars were arrested on June 17, 1972 in the Democratic Party headquarters at the Watergate office complex. They were subsequently linked to the White House.
the Watergate Crisis
OAPEC announced that they would no longer ship oil to countries that supported Israel
OAPEC oil embargo
He served as National Security Advisor and later Secretary of State in the Nixon administration, continuing in the latter position after Gerald Ford became President in the aftermath of the Watergate scandal.
Henry Kissinger
the 38th (1974–1977) President of the United States. He also served as the 40th (1973–1974) Vice President. He was the first person appointed to the Vice-Presidency under the terms of the 25th Amendment, and upon succession to the presidency became the first (and to date, only) president in U.S. history to fill that office without having been elected either President or Vice-President.
Gerald Ford
he 39th President of the United States. In 1976, Carter won the Democratic nomination as a dark horse candidate, and went on to defeat incumbent Gerald Ford in the close 1976 presidential election. As president his major accomplishments included the creation of a national energy policy and the consolidation of governmental agencies. He enacted strong environmental legislation; deregulated the trucking, airline, rail, finance, communications, and oil industries, bolstered the social security system; and appointed record numbers of women and minorities to significant government and judicial posts. In foreign affairs, Carter's accomplishments included the Camp David Accords, the Panama Canal Treaties, the creation of full diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China, and the negotiation of the SALT II Treaty. In addition, he championed human rights throughout the world and used human rights as the center of his administration's foreign policy.
Jimmy Carter
signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David. The two agreements were signed at the White House, and were witnessed by United States President Jimmy Carter.
Camp David Accords
treaties guaranteed that Panama would gain control of the Panama Canal after 1999, ending the control of the canal that the U.S. had exercised since 1903. The treaties are named after the two signatories, U.S. President Jimmy Carter and Panama's de facto leader Omar Torrijos
Panama Canal treaty
a 444-day (about 14 months) period during which student proxies of the new Iranian regime held hostage 52 diplomats and citizens of the United States, which lasted from November 4, 1979 until January 20, 1981. It is believed by many to have caused President Jimmy Carter of the United States to lose his re-election attempt, and punctuated the first Islamic revolution of modern times.
Iran Hostage Crisis
the location of a U.S. nuclear power plant that, on March 28, 1979, suffered a partial core meltdown. The Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station sits on an island in the Susquehanna River in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania,
Three Mile Island
in Moscow was a part of a package of actions to protest against the December 1979 Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan.
Olympics boycott