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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
So what is a project?
defines a project as “a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.” Temporary means that the project, thankfully, has an end date.(ask designed by PMBOK)
Some examples of projects include
Designing a new product or service

Converting from one computer application to another

Building a new warehouse

Moving from one building to another

Organizing a political campaign

Designing and building a new airplane
Defining Project Management
Is the supervision and control of the work required to complete the project vision
project manager
schedules, monitors, and controls the various project tasks
Project Integration Management
This knowledge area focuses on project plan develop and execution
Project Scope Management
This knowledge area deals with the planning, creation, protection, and fulfillment of the project
Project Time Management
Time management is crucial to project success. This knowledge area covers activities, their characteristics, and how they fit into the project schedule
Project Cost Management
Cost is always a constraint in project management. This knowledge area is concerned with the planning, estimating, budgeting, and control of costs
Project Quality Management
This knowledge area centers on quality planning, assurance, and control
Project Human Resource Management
This knowledge area focuses on organizational planning, staff acquisition, and team development.
Project Communications Management
The majority of a project manager’s time is spent communicating. This knowledge area details how communications can improve
Project Risk Management
Every project has risks. This knowledge area focuses on risk planning, analysis, monitoring, and control.
Project Procurement Management
This knowledge area involves planning, solicitation, contract administration, and contract closeout.
Defining the Project Life Cycle
One common attribute of all projects is that they eventually end. Think back to one of your favorite projects. The project started with a desire to change something within an organization. The idea to change this “something” was mulled around, kicked around, and researched until someone with power deemed it a good idea to move forward and implement the project. As the project progressed towards completion there were some very visible phases within the project life. Each phase within the life of the project created a deliverable.

For example, consider a project to build a new warehouse. The construction company has some pretty clear phases within this project: research, blueprints, approvals and permits, breaking ground, laying the foundation, and so on. Each phase, big or small, results in some accomplishment that everyone can look to and say, “Hey! We’re making progress!” Eventually the project is completed and the warehouse is put into production.

At the beginning of the project, through planning, research, experience, and expert judgment, the project manager and the project team will plot out when each phase should begin, when it should end, and the related deliverable that will come from each phase. Often, the deliverable of each phase is called a milestone. The milestone is a significant point in the schedule that allows the stakeholders to see how far the project has progressed—and how far the project has to go to reach completion.
Defining the Project Management Process
Will all projects have the same phases? Of course not! A project to create and manufacture a new pharmaceutical will not have the same phases as a project to build a skyscraper. Both projects, however, can map to the five project management processes. These processes are typical of projects, and are iterative in nature—that is, you don’t finish a process never to return. Let’s take a look at each process and its attributes.
This process launches the project, or phase. The needs of the organization are identified and alternative solutions are researched. The power to launch the project or phase is given through a project charter, and when initiating the project, the wonderful project manager is selected.
Can you guess what this process is all about? The planning process requires the project manager and the project team to develop the various core and subsidiary management plans necessary for project completion. This process is one of the most important pieces of project management
This process allows the project team and vendors to move toward completing the work outlined in the Planning process. The project team moves forward with completing the project work.
The project manager must control the work the project team and the vendors are completing. The project manager checks that the deliverables of the phases are in alignment with the project scope, defends the scope from changes, and confirms the expected level of quality of the work being performed. This process also requires the project manager to confirm that the cost and schedule are in sync with what was planned. Finally, the project team will inform the project manager of their progress, who will, in turn, report on the project’s progress to the project sponsor, to management, and perhaps even to key stakeholders in the organization
Ah, the best process of them all. The closing process, sometimes called the project postmortem, involves closing out the project accounts, completing final acceptance of the project deliverables, filing the necessary paperwork, and assigning the project team to new projects. Oh yeah, and celebrating!

Most projects have similar characteristics, such as the following:
They Are Demanding
The stakeholders, the people with a vested interested in the project, are all going to have different expectations, needs, and requests of the project deliverables. No doubt there will be conflict between the stakeholders.
They Have Clear Requirements
Projects should have a clearly defined set of requirements. These requirements will set the bar for the actual product or service created by the project, the quality of the project, and the timeliness of the project’s completion
They Come with Assumptions
Projects also have assumptions. Assumptions are beliefs held to be true, but that haven’t been proven. For example, the project may be operating under the assumption that the project team will have access to do the work at any time during the workday, rather than only in the evenings or weekends
Constraints Are Imposed
Within every project there is a driving force for the project. You’ve probably experienced some force first-hand. For example, ever had a project that had to be done by an exact date or you’d face fines and fees? This is a schedule constraint. Or a project that could not go over it’s set budget? This is a financial constraint. Or what about a project that had to hit an exact level of quality regardless of how long the project took? This is scope constraint. All are forces that tend to be in competition with each other.

Specifically, there are three constraints that a project manager will encounter
Project Scope
The scope of the project constitutes the parameters of what the project will, and will not, include. As the project progresses, the stakeholders may try to change the project scope to include more requirements than what was originally planned for (commonly called scope creep). Of course, if you change the project scope to include more deliverables, the project will likely need more time and/or money to be completed. We will talk about scope in Chapter 5
This is the expected time when the project will be completed. Realistic schedules don’t come easily. You’ll learn all about scheduling and estimating time in Chapter 6. As you may have experienced, some projects require a definite end date rather than, or in addition to, a definite budget. For example, imagine a manufacturer creating a new product for a tradeshow. The tradeshow is not going to change the start date of the show just because the manufacturer is running late with their production schedule.
Cost Budgets,
Budgets, monies, greenbacks, dead presidents, whatever you want to call it—the cost of completing the project is always high on everyone’s list of questions. The project manager must find a method to accurately predict the cost of completing the project within a given timeline, and then control the project to stay within the given budget. We will learn more about this in Chapter 7. Sounds easy, right? The following diagram illustrates the Iron Triangle of scope, schedule, and cost constraints.
Consider the Project Risk
Do you play golf? In golf, as in project management, there is a theory called The Risk-Reward Principle. You’re teeing off for the seventh hole. If you shoot straight, you can lay up in the fairway, shoot again, and then two-putt for par. Pretty safe and predictable. However, if you have confidence in your driver, you may choose to cut the waterway and get on the green in one. If you accept and beat that risk, you’ll have a nice reward. Choke and land in the water and you’re behind the game. In project management, the idea is the same. Some risks are worth taking, while others are worth the extra cost to avoid. You’ll learn all about risks in Chapter 11.
Consider the Expected Quality
What good is a project if it is finished on time and on budget, but the quality of the deliverable is so poor it is unusable? Some projects have a set level of quality that allows the project team to aim for. Other projects follow the organization’s Quality Assurance Program such as ISO 9000. And, unfortunately, some projects have a general, vague idea of what an acceptable level of quality is. Without a specific target for quality, trouble can ensue. The project manager and project team may spend more time and monies to hit an extremely high level of quality when a lower, expected level of quality would suffice for the project. Quality is needed, but an exact target of expected quality is demanded.
Project constraints influence
practically all areas of the project process. Consider constraints as a ruling requirement over the project. Common constraints you’ll encounter are time constraints in the form of deadlines and the availability of resources
Common constraints you’ll encounter
time constraints in the form of deadlines and the availability of resources
Here are some other examples of management by projects:
Training employees for a new application or business method

Marketing campaigns

The entire sales cycle from product or service introduction, proposal, and sales close

Work completed for a client outside of the organization

Work completed internally for an organization
functional environment
A company that organizes itself by job activity, such as sales, accounting, information technology, and other departmental entities is a
Management by Projects approach
An organization that uses projects to move the company forward is
project management framework
is the skeleton of projects
The management of a project, the day-to-day activities
is the bones of successful project management
A project manager must
monitor, maintain, and control the work of the project to ensure timeliness, accountability, quality, and success
The five processes of a project are
initiation, planning, execution, control, and closure
known as IPECC
initiation, planning, execution, control, and closure
Project Integration Management includes
The creation and approval of the project plan

Executing the project plan

Managing, controlling, and documenting changes to the project plan
Project Scope Management includes
Initiating the project

Planning the project scope

Defining the exact project scope

Verifying the project scope

Controlling project scope
There are several methods you can use to predict project expenses, depending on the project type
For example, if you’ve done a similar project, you could rely on your historical information to predict the costs of the current project. Another method you can use is a mathematical formula called parametric modeling.
parametric modeling
This formula works well with price per unit, like cost per square foot, cost per metric, and so on. In many instances, the proposed project may have widely different costs, and aspects that have never been completed before.
estimations start at zero, with each expense accounted for until a grand total is reached.
traditional bottom-up estimations
The nine formulas comprise Earned Value Management.
Managing project cost includes

Planning for resource allocation

Providing accurate cost estimates

Creating the project budget

Using project management cost control techniques

Proving project financial accountability
Project quality management includes
Planning for project quality

Adhering to quality assurance

Enforcing set quality control systems
look to your company’s quality assurance policy or quality program
such as ISO 9000 or Six Sigma
Project Human Resource Management is
the process of successfully applying the right resource to the project work in the most effective way to accomplish the project goals while maintaining cost and schedule
Project Human Resource Management includes
Developing a project organizational structure consistent with the organization’s own structure

Fulfilling staff acquisitions

Developing the project team
Project communication management includes
Planning effective communications

Designing information retrieval systems

Reporting on the project team and on the project performance

Following the Communications Management Plan to close out the project
When it comes to project communications management know this
it’s all about who needs what and when
Project risk management includes
Planning for Risk Management

Identifying risks

Using qualitative risk analysis

Using quantitative risk analysis

Creating project risk response plans

Actively monitoring and reacting to project risks
Managing project procurement includes
Planning for project procurement

Planning for solicitation

Management Project solicitation

Selecting vendors

Managing and creating procurement documents

Administering and closing project contracts
Communication skills are
included as part of the Professional Responsibility portion of the PMP exam. We’ll cover the Professional Responsibility information in Chapter 13
Here are some common application areas you may encounter
Legal issues such as contracts, statements of work, regulatory permits, and lawsuits

Technical issues such as IT management, software development, electrical engineering

Engineering requirements such as experience with pharmaceutical companies, civic engineering, or chemical engineering

Manufacturing issues such as product development, automotive, plastics, and others
Project management is
the management of activities to change the current state of an organization to a desired future state of the organization.
complex organization of decision-making, planning, implementation, control, and documentation of the experience from start to finish. In addition to traditional project management, there are related areas of project management that you may encounter, have encountered, or are actively participating in.
Project management is a
Program management is
the management of multiple projects all working in unison toward a common cause
Subprojects are often
outsourced to vendors
Project Portfolio Management is
a management process to select the projects that should be invested in
Project Portfolio Management is specifically, the selection process based on
the need, profitability, and affordability of the proposed projects
The Project Management Body of Knowledge is
the wealth of information relevant to the project management profession and what will be covered in the PMP exam.
All projects, large or small, have a triple constraint
time, cost, and quality
The project manager must work with stakeholders to
balance these three constraints or the project will run out of time, cost more than what was planned, or produce poor quality deliverables—or combinations of the three
A project is a
temporary endeavor to create a unique product or service. Operations are ongoing activities
Progressive elaboration is the process of
taking a project concept through to the project plan. As the planning and research activities continue, the more detailed and focused the concept becomes. Progressive elaboration happens throughout the project. It is the process of elements within the project becoming more and more exact as additional information and details become available.
Milestones are not completed by the project manager
but by the project team. In addition, milestones are the results of activities, not activities themselves.
milestones are the results of
not activities themselves.
The project scope is the description of
the required work, and only the required work, to complete the project
project postmortem
Project closure is also known as
There are how many lifecycles
Scope verification is the proof
that the project manager has completed the project
Parametric modeling is a
a mathematical formula to apply costs to a project. For example, cost per unit, cost per metric ton, and cost per yard.
rewards and incentives to move the project team towards completion
The project manager should use approved
supercedes all other work-related documents
The contract between the organization and the vendor
largest activity a project manager will undertake
Communication, informal and formal, is
collection of projects with a common cause
Programs are
manage programs
Program Managers
Project Portfolio Management is the process
of choosing and prioritizing projects within an organization. An excellent project idea can still be denied if there are not enough resources to complete the project work
make money
Businesses exist to
Customers, internal or external
are the most important stakeholders in a project