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116 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the social institution that guides a society’s decision making about how to live
Politics
large organization that directs the political life of society
Government
social institution that organizes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
Economy
the ability to achieve desired ends despite resistance
Power
economic system in which the means of producing goods and services are privately owned, People are pursuing self-interest, not the common good, are highly productive with a high standard of living,supports lay-offs, benefits some more than others, and results in concentrated wealth -> concentrated power
Capitalism
people buy and sell according to supply and demand in a free-market environment
market competition
Without or with minimum government interference
laissez-faire
economic system n which the means of producing goods and services are collectively owned, o Government limits the right of individuals to own productive property, government owns and operates factories and offices, Everyone is expected to work as a matter social responsibility, Far less economic inequality then capitalist systems because everyone is poor
Socialism
government works closely with large private companies and owns tv, telephone, and airlines
State capitalism
Economic production is private, but extensive government welfare system (high taxes) for childcare, medical care, housing, etc.
Welfare capitalism
a political system in which power is exercised by the people as a whole
Democracy
a political system that denies popular participation in government, Some are run by military, others have elections but with only one party
Authoritarian
a political system in which a single family rules from generation to generation
Monarchy
the economic and political life of a nation or a region of the world
Political economy
business with a legal existence, including rights and liabilities apart from those of their members
corporations
domination of an entire market by a single company
Monopoly
Carnegie Steel, Rockefeller Oil, J.P. Morgan Banking
Robber Barons
Broke up Rockefeller, later broke up AT&T, Microsoft
1890 Sherman Anti-trust Act
domination of a market by a few corporations
Oligopoly
giant corporation composed of many smaller corporations
Conglomerates
networks or people who serve as directors of several corporations at the same time
Interlocking directorates
political alliances of people interested in some economic or social issue (AARP, NRA)
Special Interest Groups
efforts of special interest groups a d their representatives to influence government officials
Lobbying
organizations formed by special interest groups to raise and spend money in support of political goals
Political Action Committees
Bundle personal checks from individual donors, high priced fund raising dinners
soft money
amount of people that vote
50%
arguments why voting is low
indifference, alienation
people are pretty much happy with the way things are so they don’t really pay attention
indifference
dissatisfied, but don’t think they can make a difference
alienation
income of voters
high
race of voters
white
gender of voters
both tend to be the same but they vote along gender lines
vote democratic on compassion issues
women
vote republican and want tough on crime and defense
men
rule by many, pluralist model
functionalism
power is widely distributed, compete in a democratic way, everyone has some voice
pluralist model
rule by few, C. Wright Mills - power elite model, Marx - capitalist political economy
Social conflict
power is concentrated
C. Wright Mills – The Power-Elite Model
capitalism is the root cause and should be eliminated
Marx – Capitalist Political Economy
a sense of pride and accomplishment, income
what work gives us
producing raw materials
primary sector
turning these raw materials into finished products – factory workers
secondary sectory
The Great Depression forced a rethinking of the causes of poverty and who are ‘the poor’
1930s
World War II led to great prosperity for most everyone, Suburbanization, problems in the cities
1940s and 1950s
people moved out of the cities and commuted
Suburbanization
Move to the tertiary sector, A shift from ‘blue collar’ industrial jobs to ‘white collar’ service jobs
Information Revolution
workers moved to the ‘secondary sector’, massive move from rural to city drained populations in much of the country, People needed jobs
Industrial Revolution
service work
tertiary sector
doctors, lawyers, professors – well paid, high prestige, economic security
Professionals
low paying jobs with little advancement (secretarial)
pink collar
decline of industrial production in the US since about 1950
Deindustrialization
expansion of economic activity around the world with little regard for national borders. Good for corporations, bad for ‘rank and file’ workers
Globalization
work breaks into two main categories, Primary Labor Market, Secondary Labor Market
Dual Labor Market
occupations that provide good pay and extensive benefits
Primary Labor Market
change from Industrial to Information/Service, Legislative changes
decreased danger of working
little control over what we do or how we do it
Powerlessness
the experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness in the work
Marx’s view on workplace alienation
the depersonalization of the workplace and of society in general due to modern society’s rational focus on efficiency
weber's view on workplace alienation
historical change from tradition to rationality and efficiency as the typical way people think about the world
Rationalization of Society
Efficiency, Predictability, Uniformity, Controlling workers through automation
Defining work in terms of four principles
serving food quickly and easily
Efficiency
preparing everything using set formulas
Predictability
making products the same way over and over
Uniformity
keep human decision making to a minimum
Controlling workers through automation
simple steps, simplified with little satisfaction, predictable and repetitive, involves machines and computers, dehumanizing
low-skilled jobs follow have these 5 characteristics
you must register with agency and be actively seeking a job, 4-5% is ‘normal’, capitalism benefits
Unemployment
offers flexibility, but blurs the line between home and work
Telecommuting
worker organizations that seek to improve wages and working conditions through various strategies including collective bargaining and strikes
Labor Unions
All institutions are related – change in one means the others have to accommodate
Functionalism
• Investigates the meaning people attach to their job – why some look forward to going to work and others just want to punch out
Symbolic-Interaction
Capitalism concentrates wealth and power in the hands of a small elite
Social-Conflict
social institution that unites individuals in cooperative groups that care for members, regulate sexual relations, and oversee the bearing and raising of children
Family
social bond, typically based on blood, marriage, or adoption that join individuals into families
kinship
one or two parents and their children
nuclear family
parents and children, plus grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins who often live close to one another and operate as a family unit
extended family
a lawful relationship, expected to be lasting, involving economic cooperation, sexual activity, and usually childbearing
marriage
people with or without legal or blood ties who feel they belong together and wish to define themselves as family
families of affinity
sharing of a household by an unmarried couple
cohabitation
older parents may not be able to keep pace, but may have more time, money, and be more established
later childbearing
today’s marriages will end in divorce
40%
did away with the idea that one person was necessarily to blame for the collapse of a marriage
no fault divorce
divide property fairly, place children where they seem best off, determine child support
‘irreconcilable differences’
we hear about since custody is normally given to the mother
‘deadbeat dads’
which brought to light the so called ‘breakdown of the African American family’
Moynihan Report
adaptive structures to maintain family roles
Fictive kin
fine for decent income, but lack of decent care for working/poor classes, who may need it most
Childcare
home after school. May develop self-reliance, but are at a higher risk for problems with drugs, crime, sexual activity, etc.
‘Latch-key’ kids
families in which children live with some combination of biological parents and step-parents, Problems of making new bonds, abuse
blended families
test tube baby
In Vitro Fertilization
an arrangement by which one woman carries and bears a child for another, usually in exchange for money
Surrogate Motherhood
4 major tasks family fulfills
Regulate reproduction – legitimate children to partners who are publicly committed, Secure setting for socialization of the young, Units of economic cooperation between husband and wife, Setting in which people receive affection and support
Family is the most important unit of social organization
Functionalism
Experiences of Family Life
Social Interaction
Family operates to benefit some (husband) and disadvantage others (wife, kids)
Social Conflict
the family was to ensure legitimate heirs and support the class structure
Engles
social institution by which society transmits knowledge – including basic facts, job skills, and cultural norms and values – to its members
Education
formal instruction carried out by specially trained teachers
Schooling
mostly agrarian life, in which parents take primary responsibility for education, passing along knowledge needed for life
Little schooling
the ability to read, write, and do basic arithmetic
literacy
in many countries you have to go to school until a certain age by law
Mandatory education laws
Quitting before High School Graduation
Dropping Out
not being able to read and write or do basic arithmetic well enough to carry out daily responsibilities
Functional Illiteracy
stated segregation was acceptable so long as it was ‘separate but equal’
Plessy v Ferguson
struck down separate but equal, but with de facto segregation, there were (and are) questions of how to integrate
Brown v Board of Education
Bringing in kids from other neighborhoods
Bussing
inner city schools became worse, and schools are about as segregated now
White Flight
Public schools are funded by
state and local taxes
pool school taxes at the state level and redistribute on a per student basis
‘Robin Hood’ Policy
policy of assigning students to different education programs
Tracking
math and sciences
men
languages, arts, and social sciences
women
if students need to learn English, teach them English’
English Immersion
school offers classes in the students’ native language, while also teaching them English
Bilingual Education
required states to educate and as much as possible, treat disabled students like anyone else, while meeting their special needs
Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975)
integrating special students into the overall educational program
Mainstreaming
expelling for weapons, alcohol, drugs, etc.
ero Tolerance