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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Give an example of a Divergent Boundary. Where is it located?
Mid-Ocen Ridge in the Atlantic Ocean.
Give an example of a Convergent Boundary.
How many naturally occuring elements are there today?
Earthquakes are a result of what?
Transform Boundaries.
What orbits AROUND the nucleus? What kind of mass do they have.
Electrons. Neglible mass.
What makes the atomic number?
What makes up the atomic mass?
Protons and Neutrons.
What is an isotope?
An isotope is the same element with a different # of neutrons
What is a stable isotope? Give examples.
It will not decay spontaneously to a more stable (daughter) isotope. E.g. 12C, 13C
What is a radioactive isotope? Give examples.
It WILL decay spontaneously to a more stable (daugther) isotope. E.g. 14C, 238U, 222Ra
______ can be a uranium rich bedrock.
Which areas have a high concentration of Radon?
Philadelphia, NY, NJ, CT
Most minerals are composed of _________ elements bonded together otherwise known as ________. Give Examples.
two or more; compounds; Quartz (Si and O) and Feldspar (KAlSiO3).
Ionic Bonds are ?. What do they involve? Give examples.
individual atoms held together by electronic attraction of opposite charge; Electron transfer. Na+ -----Cl-
Covalent Bonds are ?. Give an example.
Atoms bonded together by sharing MORE than TWO electrons. E.g. C
A crystalline solid is an _______.
Ordered, internal atomic arrangement
For something to be mineral it must _______ and be ______.
Occur Naturally; inorganic
How many minerals have been indentified to date?
more than 2000 minerals.
98 % of the earth's crust is composed only of how many elements?
Which elements are the most abundant on the continental crust?
Si and O.
Single Chain. Example.
SiO4 tetrahedra(4 faces) share TWO O with adjacent tetrahedra. E.g. Pryroxene.
Double Chain. Example.
SiO4 tetrahedra share TWO or THREE oxygen with adjacent tetrahedra. E.g. Amphibole.
Sheet (2-D) silicates. Example.
SiO4 share 3 oxygen with adjacent tetrahedra. E.g. biotite, mica
Framework (3-D) silicates. Examples.
SiO4 tetrahedra share 4 oxygen with adjacent tetrahedra. E.g. Quartz, Feldspar
What do oxides contain? Examples.
Oxygen. Magnetite (Fe3O4) and Hematite (Fe2O3)
What do carbonates react with (dissolved by)? What can this reaction lead to? Examples.
Acid; sinkholes. C + O + other elements. E.g. Calcite and Dolomite.
What is Sulfide made of? What enviromental problems can it cause? It is a major natural resource for _____. Examples.
S + Metals. Acid Mine Drainage. Metal. E.g. Pyrite, Galena, Sphalerite.
Name two important sources of Fe.
Magnetite and Hematite.
What are Sulfactes made of? What is it frequently used for? Give some examples.
S + other elements. Consturction Materials. Anhydrite, Gypsum.
What are Halides? Examples.
Halogen elements (F,Cl, Br). E.g. Halite, Fluorite.
What are native elements? Examples.
Contain only ONE single element. Gold, Silver, Sulfur.
What is crystal form?
external shape reflection internal structure.
In what direction does cleavage break?
Direction of WEAK CHEMICAL bonding.
What is hardness?
Resistance to abrasion or scratching; hard materials can scratch soft materials.
Fractures occur in Minerals with what type of chemical bonding?
What is the crystalline mineral structure?
Minerals with consistent atomic order and regular internal structure.
What is the amorphus mineral structure? Example.
Lack of atomic order, random distribution of atoms . Glass.
What is the Polymorphs mineral sturcure? Examples.
Minerals with same chemical composition but different structures. E.g. Diamond (3-D) and Graphite (2-D)
What hardness do gemstones need?
Greater than 8.
How do igneous rocks form?
Form when molten magma ascends (originates at depth > 100 km) cools and solidifies.
What are extrusive rocks?
Igneous rocks that solidify on the surface. Have fine-grained crystals.
What are intrusive rocks?
Igneous rocks that solidify below the surface. Have coarse grain crystals.
Aphanitic Texture
Fine-grained, uniformed crystal size formed by rapid cooling.
Phaneritic Texture
Coarse grain, uniform crystal size formed by slow cooling.
Porphyritic Texture
Large crystals embedded in a matrix (groundmass) of small crystals.
Andesite Porphry Texture
Large Grained crystals dispersed in a fine-grained groundmass
Vesicular Texture
Spherical or Elongated holes or cavities
What causes the voids in the vesicular texture? Example.
trapped gass bubble. Pumice-light color; scoria-dark color
Glassy Texture.
Non-crystalline solids with glassy textures
Give an example of the glassy texture and explain how it was formed.
Obsidian; formed by rapid cooling of magma, rocks with fractures as broken glass
Pyroclastic Texture. How is it formed?
Fine ash + angular rock fragments (materials torn from the walls of volcanic vent). Formed by explosive volcanic eruption. e.g. volcanic breccia: particles > 2 cm
tuff: particle < 2 cm.
Mafic. High or Low viscosity? High or low density?
45-52% SiO2. Low viscosity (flow easily). High density (contains more Fe, Mg)
Intermediate (Andesitic). high or low viscosity? High or Low density?
53-65% SiO2
Felsic. high or low viscosity
65% of Si02., very viscous and explosive. Low Density.
Magma composition determines what?
the mineralogy of an igneous rock.
Bowen Reaction Series for Magma Crystallization
Sequence of minerals crystallize from a cooling magma.
Which minerals crystallize first?
Minerals with a higher melting point.
What does the Bowen Reaction Series do?
Serves as the basis for the classification of igneous rocks.
What are Rock pairs? Examples.
a pair of rocks that have the same chemical composition but different texture.

Granite-Rhylolite -- Felsic Magma

Diorite-Andesite -- Intermediate Magma

Gabbra-Basalt -- Mafic Magma