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67 Cards in this Set

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the focus is on age related changes in behavior
developmental pyschology
science of behavior and mental processes
developmental psychology
science that seeks to understand how and why people change or remain the same
human development
biosocial, cognitive and psychosocial
domains of behavior
multidirectional, multicontextual, multicultural, multidisciplinary and plasticity
life span perspective characteristics
observation, surveys, case studies
desriptive research methods
correlation is not ________
causation
independent variable, dependent variable, experimental subjects, control subjects, double blind study, cause and effect
experimental research methods
groups of different ages compared at the same point in time
cross sectional research
same group of people studied at intervals over a long period of time
longitudinal research
combines cross sectional and longitudinal research
cross sequential research
good points and bad points of all methods
merits and flaws
systematic set of principles and generalizations that explains development, generates hypotheses and provides framework for research
developmental theories
comprehensive theories that have inspired and directed thinking about development for decades but no longer seems adequate
grand theories
irrational unconscious forces, many originating in childhoold that underlie human behavior

who and what is it called?
Sigmund Freud and pyschoanalytic theory
theory on which life span development is based. development crisis at each stage of development
Erikson and 8 stages of pychosocial development
behaviorism theory of learning through association

who and what is it called?
Pavlov and classical conditioning
behaviorism theory of learning through reinforcement- law of effect

who and what?
Skinner and operant conditioning
behaviorism theory of learning through modeling, imitation and observation
Bandura and social learning
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational
Piagets 4 stages of cognitive development
Freud, Erikson and Piaget all have _______________ theories of development
stage
theory which holds that human development results from dynamic interaction between developing persons and the surrounding culture
emergent theory
zone of proximal development and guided participation

who and what kind of theory
Vygotsky and emergent
emphasized the interaction of the genes and the environment, interaction that is seen as dynamic and reciprocal
epigenetic theory
all the nongenetic factors that can affect development form the cellular level to the broader effects
environment
specific genetic material that an organism inherits from its parents
heredity
sperm cell and egg cell
gametes
how many chromosomes in each gamete
23
genetic material
chromosomes, genes and dna
sequence of chemical compounds that is held witin dna molecules and directs development
genetic code
international effort to map the complete genetic code
human genome project
single cell formed from fusing a sperm with an ovum
zygote
what you have
genotype
what you see
phenotype
portays the persons chromosomes
karyotype
sex linked characteristics
x linked genes
fraternal twins
dizygotic
monozygotic
identical twins
characteristics produced by interaction of many genes
polygenic traits
disorder in which part of the x chromosome is attache to the rest of it by a very slim string of molecules, genetic abnormality and often produces mental deficiecy
fragile x syndrome
thinking about thinking
metacognition
chapter 12
thinking about memory and how to improve it
metamemory
chapter 12
second language learning
bilingual
the ability to concentrate on relevant information and ignore distractions
selective attention
chapter 12
memory improves dramatically during the school years due to _____________________
selective attention
based on reasoning ability and not behavior
kohlbergs stages of moral development
Sids
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome-
put babies to sleep on their backs!
involuntary physical responses to stimuli
reflexes
general term pscyhologists use for thinking
cognition
an apparent but not actual drop between one surface and another
visual cliff
chapt 6
each of the various opportunities for perception, action and interaction
affordances
6
mobile experiment
memory
6
theory that every individual is born with a distinct, genetically bases set of psychological tendencies or dispositions
epigenetic systems theory
chap 7
a network of nerves connecting the left and right hemispheres of the brain
corpus callosum
chap 8
last part of brain to reach maturity
prefrontal cortex
chap 8
leading cause of death for young children
injury
fatty insulating covering on axons that speeds up the transmission of neaural impulses, account sfor much of the brains growth during this period.
myelination
chap 8
follow the laws of development- cephalo-caudal and proximo-distal
motor skill
5
large body movements
gross motor skills
5
small body movements
fine motor skills
5
diseases(rubella, AIDS), drugs and alcohol, smoking, x rays
examples of tetrogens
4
organ that encases the embryo and connects its ciruclatory system with that of the mother
embryo
4
9th week until birth when all organs gorw in size and complexity
period of fetus
4
3rd through 8th week after conception durking which the rudimentary system forms all anatomical structures to develop
period of embryo
4
first two weeks of development after conception, beginning of cell differentiation
germinal period
4
becomes the central nervous system, brain and spinal chord
neural tube
4
alternate division of prenatal development
3 month trimesters
4