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228 Cards in this Set

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What is muscle tone?
is the constant, slightly contracted state of all muscles which does not produce active movements
NAME
is the constant, slightly contracted state of all muscles which does not produce active movements
muscle tone
What does muscle tone do?
keeps the muscles firm, healthy, and ready to respond to stimulus
NAME
keeps the muscles firm, healthy and ready to respond to stimulus
muscle tone
How do spinal reflexes account for muscle tone?(2)
by (1)activating one motor unit and then another (2)responding to activation of strech receptors in muscles and tendons
(1) accounts for (2) by activating one motor unit and then another and responding to activation of strech receptors in muscles and tendons
(1)spinal reflexes (2)muscle tone
What happens in isotonic contraction?
the muscle changes in length and moves the load
NAME
refers to when the muscle changes in length and moves the load
isotonic concentrations
What are two diferent types of contractions?
(1)concentric (2)eccentric
What is a concentric contractions?
is when the muscle shortens and does work
NAME
is when the muscle shortens and does work
concentric contractions
What are eccentric contractions?
is when the muscle contracts as it lengthens
NAME
is when the muscle contracts as it lengthens
eccentric contractions
NAME
increases the muscle's capacity, but the muscle neither shortens or lengthens
tension
Tension causes in (1)
increase in the muscle's capacity
can tension cause the muscle to shorten or legnthen?
no
When is a muscle able to devolop?
when tension ocurs if the load is greater than the tension the muscle is able to develop
if tensions ocurs and the load is greater than the tension the muscle is able to (1)
develop
(1) is the only source used directly for contractile activity
ATP
What is the muscle metabolism?
is the energy for contraction
NAME
is the energy for contraction
muscle metabolism
during muscle contraction, how are ATP stores regenerated?
(1)the interaction of ADP w CP (2)anaerobic glycolysis (3)aerobic respiration
What happens when muscle contractile activity reaches 70% of maximim? (3)
(1)bulging of muscles compress blood vessels (2)oxygen delivery is impaired (3)pyruvic acid is converted into latic acid
When (1), the following can happen,
the bulging of muscles compresses blood vessels, pyruvic acid is converted into latic acid, and oxygen delivery is impaired
muscle contractile avtivity reaches 70%max
What happens when the latic acid is produced by the muscles?
latic acid diffuses into the blood stream (2)is picked up the and used as fuel by the liver, kidneys, and the heart (3)is converted back into pyruvic acid by the liver
latic acid is converted back into pyruvic acid by the (1)
liver
What is muscle fatigue?
is when the muscle is in a state of physiological inability to contract
NAME
is when the muscle is in a stae of physciological inability to contract
muscle fatigue
When can muscle fatigue ocur? (4)
(1)ATP production fails to keep pace w ATP use (2)there is relative deficit of ATP, causing contractures (3)Latic acid accumulates in the muscle (4)ionic imbalances are present
(1) can produce rapid muscle fatigue
intense excerise
During muscle fatigue, can Na K pumps restores the ionic imbalance?
no, not fast enough
(1)excerise produces slow developing fatique
low-intensity
low-intensity excerise produces (1)
slow devoloping fatigue
(1) is the only source used directly for contractile activity
ATP
What is the muscle metabolism?
is the energy for contraction
NAME
is the energy for contraction
muscle metabolism
during muscle contraction, how are ATP stores regenerated?
(1)the interaction of ADP w CP (2)anaerobic glycolysis (3)aerobic respiration
What happens when muscle contractile activity reaches 70% of maximim? (3)
(1)bulging of muscles compress blood vessels (2)oxygen delivery is impaired (3)pyruvic acid is converted into latic acid
When (1), the following can happen,
the bulging of muscles compresses blood vessels, pyruvic acid is converted into latic acid, and oxygen delivery is impaired
muscle contractile avtivity reaches 70%max
What happens when the latic acid is produced by the muscles?
latic acid diffuses into the blood stream (2)is picked up the and used as fuel by the liver, kidneys, and the heart (3)is converted back into pyruvic acid by the liver
latic acid is converted back into pyruvic acid by the (1)
liver
What is muscle fatigue?
is when the muscle is in a state of physiological inability to contract
NAME
is when the muscle is in a stae of physciological inability to contract
muscle fatigue
When can muscle fatigue ocur? (4)
(1)ATP production fails to keep pace w ATP use (2)there is relative deficit of ATP, causing contractures (3)Latic acid accumulates in the muscle (4)ionic imbalances are present
(1) can produce rapid muscle fatigue w rapid recovery
intense excerise
During muscle fatigue, can Na K pumps restores the ionic imbalance?
no, not fast enough
(1)excerise produces slow developing fatique
low-intensity
low-intensity excerise produces (1)
slow devoloping fatigue w rapid recovery
What happens when the muscle is fatigued?
(1)SR damage (2)Ca2+ regulation is disturpted
NAME
can cause SR damage and distrupt Ca2+ regulation
muscle fatigued
(1) can cause dramatic changes in muscle chemistry
vigrous exercise
Vigrous excerise can cause dramatic changes in (1)
muscle chemistry
What has to happen for a muscle to return to its resting state?
(1)Oxygen reserves must be replenished (2)lactic acid must be converted to pyruvic acid (3)Glycogen stores must be replaced (4)ATP and CP reserves must be resynthesized
What is O2 debt?
the extra amount of O2 needed to return muscles to resting
NAME
refers to the extra amount of O2 needed to return muscles to resting
O2 debt
Only (1) of the energy released in muscle activity is useful as work
40 %
How much of energy released in muscle activity is useful as work?
40%
What happens to the rest of the energy released in muscle activity that is not used for work?
it is lost as heat (60%)
What prevent dangerous levels of heat from our bodies?
by radiation of heat from the skin and sweating
What affects the force of contraction? (3)
(1)the number of muscle fibers contractin (2)the relative size of the muscle (3)the degree of muscle strech
The more motor fibers, the (1) the contraction
stronger
The bulkier the muscle, (1)
the greater the strength
the (1), the stronger the contraction
more motor fibres
the (1) the muscle, the greater its strength
bulkier
When do muscles contract the strongest?
when the muscle fibers are 80-120% of thier normal resting length
Muscles contract the (1) when the muscle fibers are 80-120%of thier normal resting length
strongest
What determines the speed of contraction?
the speed in which the ATPases split ATP
the speed at which the ATPases split ATP determine the (1)
speed of contraction
two types of fibers are (1) and (2)
slow and fast
What are oxidative fibers?
use aerobic pathways
NAMEs
these fibers use aerobic pathway
oxidative fibers
NAME
these fibers use anaerobic pathways
Glycolytic fibers
What are glycolytic fibers?
use anaerobic pathways
(1) and (2) define three catergores: slow oxidative fibers, fast oxidative fibers, and fast glyoclytic fibers
(1)speed of contraction and (2)ATP-forming pathways
What are slow oxidative fibers?
contract slowly, have slow acting myosin ATPases and are fatigue resistant
NAME
contract slowly, have slow acting myosin ATPases and are fatigue resistant
slow oxidative fibers
What are fast oxidative fibers?
contract quickly, have fast myosin ATPases, and have moderate resistance to fatigue
NAME
contract quickly, have fast myosin ATPases, and have moderate resistance to fatigue
fast oxidative fibers
What are fast glycolytic fibers?
contract quickly, have fast myosin ATPases and are easily fatigued
NAME
contract quickly, have fast myosin ATPases, and are easily fatigued
fast glycolytic
smooth muscles are composed of (1)
spindle shaped fibers
(1)muscles are composed of spindle shaped fibers
smooth
NAME
lack the coarse connective tissue sheaths of skeletal muscles but have fine ednomyisum
smooth muscle
Does smooth muscle have a coarse connective tissue sheath?
no
Smooth muscle has a fine (1)
endomyisum
How smooth muscle organized?
into two layers of closely apposed fibers
NAME
is organized into two layer closely composed of apposed fibers
smooth muscle
What are the two layers of smooth muscle called?
(1)longitudinal (2)circular
Where can you find smooth muscle?
in walls of hollow organs except the heart
NAME
can be found in the walls of hollow organs except the heart
smooth muscle
is there smooth muscle in the heart?
no
T or F
smooth muscle has the same contracile mechanism as skeletal muscles
true
What happens when the longitudinal layer of the smooth muscle contracts?
the organ dilates and contract
What happens when the circular layer of smooth muscle contracts?
the ogran elgonates
NAME
when this layer of smooth muscle contracts, the organ elgonates
circular layer
NAME
when this layer of smooth muscle, contracts, the organ dilates and contracts
the longitudinal layer
What is perisalsis?
is alternating contractions and relaxiations of smooth muscles that mix and squeeze substances through the lumen of hollow organs
NAME
is alternating contractions and relaxing of smooth muscles that mix and squeeze substances through the lumen of hollow organs
perisalsis
NAME
lacks neuromuscular junctions
smooth muscles
Do smooth muscle have nuromuscular junctions?
no
What are variosites?
are the bulbous swellings of innervating nerves
NAME
the bulbous swellings of innervating nerves
variosites
NAME
has innverting nerves w variosites
smooth muscle
What do variosites do?
release neurotransmitters into wide synaptic clefts called diffuse junctions
NAME
release neurotransmitters into wide synaptic clefts called diffuse junctions
variosites
What are diffuse junctions?
are wide synaptic clefts
NAME
are wide synaptic clefts
diffuse junctions
NAME
SR is less devoloped than in the skeletal muscle and lacks a specffic pattern
smooth pattern
Compared to Skeletal muscles, what is the smooth muscles SR like?
the SR is less developed than in skeletal muscle and lacks a specfic pattern
Are there T tubules present in smooth muscles?
yes
Where is Ca2+ in smooth musceles?
Ca2+ is sequestered in the extracellular space near the cavioli, allowing the rapid influx when channels are opened
NAME MUSCLE
Ca2+ is sequestered in the extracellular space near the caveoli, allowing rapid influx when channels are opened
smooth muscle
Does smooth muscle have striations?
no
Does smooth muscle have visible sacromeres?
no
NAME MUSCLE
there are no visible striations and no sacromeres
smooth muscles
In smooth muscle, what kind of filaments are present?
both thick and thin
How are the thick and thin filaments arranged in the smooth muscle?
diagonally causing smooth muscle to contract in a corkscrew manner
What causes smooth muscle to contract in a corkscrew manner?
the diagonally arrangement of thick and thin filaments
In smooth muscle, (1) attach to dense bodies at regular intervels
noncontractile intermediate filaments
in smooth muscle, noncontractile intermediate filaments attach to (1)
dense bodies at regular intervels
Whole sheets of smooth muscle, exhbit (1) contractions
slow, snychronized
NAME
whole sheets of this muscle, exhibit slow, synchronized muscle contractions
smooth
How do smooth muscle contract?
in unision reflecting their eletrical coupling w gap junctions
Action potiental is transmitted from (1) to (2)
cell to cell
What are (2) things that smooth muscle can do?
(1)act as pacemakers and set contractile pace for whole sheets of muscle (2)are self-excitatory and depolarize w/out external stimuli
NAME
can act as pacemakers and set contractile pace for whole sheets of muscles
smooth muscle
NAME
some are self-exictatory and depolarize w/ out external stimuli
smooth muscle
Actin and myosin interact according to the (1)
sliding filament mechanism
(1) and (2) interact according to the sliding filament mechanism
actin and myosin
What is the final trigger for contractions?
the rise in intracellular Ca2+
Where is Ca2+ released?
from the SR and from the extracellular space
NAME
is released from the SR and from the extracellular space
Ca2+
Ca2+ interacts w (1) and (2) to activate myosin
(1)calmodulin (2)myosin light chain kinase
Ca2+ interacts w/ calmodulin and myosin light chain kinase to (1)
activate myosin
NAME
interacts w/ calmodulin and myosin light chaing kinase to activate myosin
Ca2+
Ca2+ binds to (1)
calmodulin and activiates it
NAME
binds to calmodulin and actiavtes
Ca2+
Actiavated calmodulin (1)
activates the kinase enzyme
NAME
activates teh kinase enzyme
actiavated calmodulin
Activated kinase transfers (1)
phosphate from ATP to myosin's cross bridges
NAME
tranfers phosphates from ATP to myosin's cross bridges
actiavted kinase
Phoshorylated cross bridges interact w (1)
actin to produce shortening
NAME
interact w actin to produce shortenings
phosphorylated cross bridges
Smooth muscles relax when (1) levels drop
Ca2+
What are some unique characteriscs of smooth muscles? (4)
(1)smooth muscle tone (2)slow, prolonged contracile activity (3)low energy requirements (4)response to strech
NAME MUSCLE
has smooth muscle tone and slow prolonged contractile activity
smooth muscle
NAME MUSCLE
has low energy requirements and reponse to stretch
smooth muscle
NAME
exhibits a stress-relaxiation response
smooth muscle
smooth muscle exhibits a phneomenon called (1)
stress relaxiation repsonse
Smooth muscle responds to strech only (1) and (2)
(1)briefly (2)adapts to its new length
After smooth muscle is streched briefly, does the new length have the ability to contract?
yes
smooth muscle's stress relaxiation response enables organs such as the (1) and (2) to temporairly store contents
(1)stomach (2)bladder
Smooth muscles's stress relaxiation response enables (1)
organs such as the stomach and bladder to temporairly store contents
NAME
certain cells can divide and increase thier numbers by hyperplasia
smooth muscle
Certain smooth muscle cells can divide, how do they increase thier numbers?
by hyperplasia
Give a example of how hyperplasia causes smooth muscles to divide? (2)
pubetry, estrogen stimulates the synthesis of more smooth muscles, causing the uterus to grow to adult size (2)during pregrancy, estrogen stimulates uterine growth to accomodiate the increasing size of the fetus
NAME
a example is during pregrancy, estrogen stimulates uterine growth to accomodiate the increasing size of the fetus
how hyperplasia causes smooth muscles to divide
NAME
a example is during pregrancy, estrogen stimulates uterine growth to accommodate the increasing size of the growing fetus
hyperplasia
Estrogen's effects on the uterus show (1)
how certain smooth muscles can divide by undergoing hyperplasia
the cells of a single unit of smooth muscle are commonly called (1)
visceral muscle
the cells of (1) are commonly called visceral muscle
a single unit of smooth muscle
What are (4) things that a visceral muscle can do?
(1)contract rhymically as a unit (2)are eletrically coupled to one another via gap junctions (3)often exhibit spontaneous action potenitals (4)are arranged in opposing sheets and exhibit stress-relexation respones
NAME
contract rhymically as a unit
visceral muscle
NAME
are electrically coupled to one another via gap junctions
visceral muscle
Visceral muscle are eletrically couple to one another via (1)
gap junctions
NAME
often exhibit spntaneous action potientals and are arranged in opposing sheets and exhibit stress-relaxiation response
visceral junctions
Where are multiunit smooth muscle found?
(1)in large airways of the lungs,(2)in large arteries (3)in arrecter pilli muscles (4)attached to hair follicles (5)in the internal eye muscles
NAME
can be found in the large airways of the lungs, in large arteries, in arrecter pilli muscles, attached to hair follicles, and in the internal eye muscles
mulitunit of the smooth muscle
What are (5) chraceteristics of muliunit smooth muscles?
(1)rare gap junctions (2)infrequent spontaeous depolirazation (3)struturally independent muscle fibers (4)a rich nerve supply, which, w a number of muscle fibers form motor units (5)graded contractions in response to neural stimuli
NAME
have rare gap junctions
mulitunit of smooth muscle
NAME
has infrequent spontaeous depolirzation
multiunit of smooth muscle
NAME
is structuarally independent muscle fibers
multiunit of smooth muscle
NAME
has a rich supply, which w a number of muscle fibers forms motor units
multiunit of smooth muscle
NAME
are graded contractions in response to neural stimuli
multiunit of smooth muscle
What is muscular dystrophy?
is a group of inherited muscle destroying diseases where muscles enlarge due to fat and connective tissue deposits but muscle fibers atrophy
NAME
is a group of inherited muscle destroying diseases where muscles enlarge due to fat and connective tissue deposits but muscle fibers atrophy
muscular dystrophy
What does DMD stand for?
duchenne muscular dystrophy
What is DMD?
is an inherited sex-linked disease carried by females expressed in males
NAME
is an inherited sex-linked disease carried by females expressed in males
DMD
what happens to the victims of DMD?
they become clumsy and fall frequently as thier muscles fail
NAME
victims of this disease become clumsy and fall frequently as thier muscle fial
DMD
How does DMD progress?
from extermites upward and victims die of respiratory faliure
NAME
muscle failure progrosses from the extermties upward and victims die of respiratory faliure in thier late 20's
DMD
What causes DMD?
lack of a cytoplasmic protien called dystrophin
NAME
is caused by the lack of a cytoplasmic protien called dystrophin
DMD
Is there a cure for DMD?
no bute myoblast transfer therapy shows promise
Muscle tissue devolps from embyronic mesoderm tissue called (1)
myoblasts
How does muscle tissue develop?
from embroyonic mesoderm tissue called myoblasts
NAME
develops form an embroynic mesoderm tissue called myosblasts
muscle tissue
What are myosblasts?
is a embryonic mesoderm tissue from which muscle tissue devlops
NAME
is an embryonic tissue from which muscle tissue devlops
myosblasts
Multinucleated skeletal muscles form by (1)
fusion of myoblasts
(1) muscles form by the fusion of myoblasts
multinucleated skeletal
What is argin?
is a growth factor that stimulates the clustering of ACH receptors at newly forming motor end plates
NAME
is a growth factor that stimulates the cluserting of ACH receptors at newly forming motor end plates
argin
Do cardiac and smooth muscles fuse?
no
Cardiac and smooth muscles do not fuse but develop (1)
gap junctions at an early embryonic age
NAME
these muscles do not fuse but develop gap junctions at an early embryonic age
cardiac and smooth muscles
Cardiac and skeletal muscles become (1)but can (2)
(1)amitoitic (2)lengthen and thicken
NAME
become amitotic but can lengthen and thicken (2)
cardiac and skeletal muscles
Do cardiac cells have satellite cells?
no
T or F
cardiac cells do have satellite cells
false
NAME
lack satellite cells
cardiac cells
Smooth muscle cells have good (1)
regenerative ability
NAME MUSCLE
have good regenerative ability
smooth muscle cells
Musclular devolopment reflects (1)
neuromuscular coordination
(1) reflects neuromuscular coordination
muscular devolopment
Development of muscles ocurs (1) and (2)
(1)head to toe (2)proxmial to distal
When is the peak natural neural control of muscles ocur?
by midadolesence
Athelics and training can improve (1)
neuromuscular control
T or F
there is no bioligcal basis for greater strength in men than women
flase
Women's skeletal muscles make up (1) of thier body's mass
36
Men's sketetal muscles make up (1) of thier body's mass
42%
What accounts for the differ in skeletal muscle mass of women and men?
testosterone
testosterone accounts for the differ in (1)
skeletal muscle mass of women and men
w more muscle mass, (1) are generally stronger
men
T or F
body strength per unit muscle mass, however is the same in both sexes
true
With age, (1) tissues increases, and (2) decrease
(1)connective tissue (2)muscle fibers
W age, connective tissue (1), and muscle fibers (2)
(1)increae (2)decrease
W age, muscles become (1) and (2)
stringer and more sinwy
by age 80, (1) of muscle mass is lost
50%
What is sarcopenia?
loss of muscle mass
NAME
refers to the loss of muscle mass
sacropenia
What can reverse sacropenia?
regular excerise
regular excerise can reverse (1)
sacropenia
Aging of the cardiovascular system affects (1)
every ogran in the body
(1) may block distal aerties, leading to intermitten claudication and causing serve pain in the leg muscles
Atherscerlosis
Atherscerlosis may block (1) leading to intermitten claduciation causing (2)
(1)distal aerties (2)serve pain in leg muscles