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13 Cards in this Set

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carcinoma of the testes
Malignant tumor of the testicles.
Most common tumor is: seminoma

Others are: embryonal carcinoma, teratoma & teratocarcinoma.

Treatment: surgery(orchiectomy), radiotherapy, & chemotherapy
cryptorchism; cryptorchidism
undescended testicles.

orchiopexy is performed to bring testes into scrotum.
hydrocele
sac of clear fluid in the scrotum.

Maybe congenital or due to infection or tumor. If hyrocele doesn't resolve on its own, hydrocelectomy may be necessary.
testicular torsion
twisting of the spermatic cord cuts off blood supply to testis. Most frequent in 1st year of life & puberty.

Surgical correction needed within 5 hours to save testis.
varicocele
enlarged, dilated veins near testicle.

associated with oligospermia & azoospermia(complete absence of sperm from seminal fluid).
oligospermic men with varicoceles & scrotal pain should have varicocelectomy.
carcinoma of the prostate
malignant tumor of the prostate gland in men > 50yrs.

DRE can detect tumor at later stage. Early detection depends on PSA test.

To diagnose pathologist needs to do a biopsy using a Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS).

Treatment: prostatectomy, radiation, hormonal chemo.
prostatic hyperplasia
Benign growth of cells within the prostate gland; benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

Common in men>60yrs.
symptoms: urinary obstruction.

Treatment: 1. Transurethral resection (TURP).
2. Drugs - Finasteride, tamsulosin
hypospadias; hypospadia
Congenital opening of the male urethra on the undersurface of the penis.

(-spadias means condition of tearing or cutting)

-Can be corrected surgically.
phimosis
Narrowing of the opening of the prepuce over the glans penis; phim/o means to muzzle.

Treatment by circumcision
chlamydial infection
Bacteria (chlamydia trachomatis) invade the urethra & reproductive tract of men & vagina & cervix of women.

Within 3 weeks Men: experience dysuria, & discharge from penis (called nonspecific urethritis).
Tetracycline cures it.
gonorrhea
Inflammation of the genital tract mucous membranes, caused by infection with gonococci (berry shaped bacteria).
Eyes, oral mucosa, rectum, joints may also be affected.
Symptoms: dysuria, purulent (pus filled) discharge from urethra.
Some women have it without symptoms, others have pain, vaginal & urethral discharge, & salpingitis (PID).

Both men & women can get anorectal & pharyngeal infections as well. Chlamydia & gonorrhea infections often occur together.

Treatment w/antibiotics.
herpes genitalis
Infection of the skin & genital mucosa, caused by the herpes simplex virus (HPV I & II).
No cure.
Women with have higher risk of cervical & vulvar cancer. Women infected who are giving birth create complications for the baby...so gynecologists deliver by CS.
syphilis
Chronic STI caused by a spirochete (spiral shaped bacterium).
A chancre (hard ulcer) appears on external genitalia a few weeks after infection. Lymphadenopathy follows as infection spreads to internal organs. Then brain damage, spinal cord, & heart are affected.
Treatment by penicillin