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43 Cards in this Set

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In biology, the ordering of organisms into categories, such as phyla, orders, and families, to show evolutionary relationships.
classification
Multicellular animals; a major division of the animal kingdom.
metazoa
The phylum of the animal kingdom that includes vertebrates.
chordata
Animals with bony backbones; includes fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
vertebrates
Similarities between organisms based on descent from a common ancestor.
homologies
Similarities between organisms based strictly on common function with no assumed common evolutionary descent.
analogies
The separate evolutionary development of similar characteristics in different groups of organisms.
homoplasy
A traditional approach to classification (and evolutionary interpretation) in which presumed ancestors and descendants are traced in time by analysis of homologous characters.
evolutionary systematics
Referring to characters inherited by a group of organisms from a remote ancestor and thus not diagnostic of groups (lineages) branching subsequent to the time the character first appeared.
ancestral (primitive)
Referring to characters that are modified from the ancestral condition and thus are diagnostic of particular evolutionary lineages.
derived (modified)
Small- to medium sized ground-living dinosaurs, dated to approximately 150 m.y.a. and thought to be related to birds.
theropods
A chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by phylogenetic systematics. It contains a time component and implies ancestor-descendant relationships.
phylogenetic tree
A chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by cladistic analysis. It is based solely on interpretation of shared derived characters. No time component is indicated, and ancestor-descendant relationships are not implied.
cladogram
A depiction of individual capable of fertile interbreeding, but reproductively isolated from other groups.
biological species concept
The process where a new species evolves from a prior species. Speciation is the most basic process in macroevolution.
speciation
A depiction of species where the key aspect is the ability of individuals to identify members of their own species for purposes of mating (and to avoid mating with members of other species). In theory, this type of selective mating is a component of a species concept emphasizing mating and is therefore compatible with the biological species concept.
recognition species concept
the concept that a species is a group of organisms exploiting a single niche. This view emphasizes the role of natural selection in separating species from one another.
ecological species concept
A model of speciation emphasizing complete (or nearly complete) reproductive isolation of divergent populations from their ancestral population.
allopatric
within species; refers to variations seen within the same species.
intraspecific
Between species; refers to variation beyond that seen within the same species to include additional aspects seen between two different species.
interspecific
Species defined from fossil evidence, often covering a long time span.
paleospecies
A group of closely related species
genus
The organization of earth history into eras, periods, and epochs; commonly used by geologists and paleoanthropologists.
geological time scale
Colloquial term for members of the family Hominidae, which includes all bipedal hominoids back to the divergence from African great apes.
hominids
The relatively rapid expansion and diversification of life forms into new ecological niches.
adaptive radiation
The concept that evolutionary change proceeds through long periods of stasis punctuated by rapid periods of change.
punctuated equilbrium
True or False: Homologies alone are not reliable indicators of evolutionary relationship.
false
Differences in structural traits between males and females of the same population and can result in marked variance in body size and proportions in adults of the same species.
sexual dimorphism
An important form of isolating mechanism where gene exchange between populations (gene flow) is limited when a geographical barrier effectively separate these populations.
geographical isolation
Behavioral differences interfering with courship where two populations, after the effects of genetic drift and natural selction over many generation, could no longer interbreed.
behavioral isolation
The movement of continents on sliding plates of the earth's surface. As a result, the positions of large landmasses have shifted dramtically during the earth's history.
continental drift
The positions of species within their physical and biological environments, together making up the ecosystem. This is defined by such components as diet, terrain, vegetation, type of predators, relationships with other species, and activity patterns, and each one is unique to a given species.
ecological niches
Categories of the geological time scale; subdivisions of periods. In the Cenozoic, this includes the Paleocene, Ecocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene (from the Tertiary), and the Pleistocene and Holocene (from the Quaternary).
epochs
Having different kinds of teeth; characteristic of mammals, whose teeth consist of incisors, canines, premolars, and molars.
heterodont
Able to maintain internal body temperature through the production of energy by means of metabolic processes within cells; characteristic of mammals, birds, and perhaps some dinosaurs.
endothermic
List the 7 epoches with the appropriate insecticide, as well as when it begin in "m.y.a."
Holocene & Pleistocene: Homo (0.01-1.8 m.y.a.)

Pliocene: hominids (5 m.y.a.)

Miocene: apes (23 m.y.a.)

Oligocene: monkeys (34 m.y.a.)

Eocene: prosimians (55 m.y.a.)

Paleocene: primates (65 m.y.a.)
What three eras encompass vertebrate evolution?
Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and the Cenozoic
True or False: The first vertebrates are present in the fossil record dating to early in the Paleozoic 500 m.y.a. and probably go back considerably further.
true
During the Paleozoic, what appeared?
several varieties of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles; rise to mammals
During the late Paleozoic, the continents came together to form a single colossal landmass called ______.
Pangea
By the end of the _______ (c. ___ m.y.a.), the continents were beginning to assume their current positions.
Mesozoic (c. 65 m.y.a.)
What was dominant during most of the Mesozoic era?
reptiles, dinosaurs
The earliest mammals are known from fossil traces fiarly early in the ______.
Mesozoic