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46 Cards in this Set

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anaphase
mitotic phase during which daughter chromosomes move towards the poles of the spindle
angiogenesis
Formation of new blood vessels; one mechanism by whch cancer spreads
apoptosis
Programmed cell death involving a cascade of specific cellular events leading to death and destruction of the cell.
aster
Short, radiating fibers produced by the centrosomes in animal cells.
benign tumor
tumor that does not invade adjacent tissue and stays at the site or origin.
cancer
Malignant tumorwhose nondifferentiated cells exhibit loss of contact inhibition, uncontrolled growth, and the ability to invade tissu and metastasize.
carcinogenesis
development of cancer
Cell Cycle
repeating sequence of events in eukaryotes that involves cell growth and nuclear division; consists of the stages G1, S, G2, and M
Cell plate
Structure across a dividing plant cell that signals the location of new plasma membranes and cell walls.
Centromere
constricted region on a chromosome joining two sister chromatids.
Centrosome
Central microtubule organizing center of cells. In animal cells, it contains two centrioles
Checkpoint
in the cell cycle, one of several oints where the cell cycle can stop or continue on, depending on the internal signal it receives; ensures that each step of the cell cycle is completed before the next one begins.
Chromatid
A single DNA strand of a chromosome. Chromosomes may consist of a pair of sister chromatids
chromain
Network of fibrils consisting of DNA and associated proteins observed within a nucleus that is not dividing.
chromosome
Structure consisting of DNA complexed with proteins tat transmits genetic information from the previous generation of cells and organisms to the next generation
Contact inhibition
in cell culture, the point where cells stop diviing when they become a one-cell think sheet.
cyclin
protein that cycles in quantity as the cell cycle prgresses; combines with and activates the kinases that function to promote the events of the cycle
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm following mitosis and meiosis
DNA replication
snthesis of a new DNA double helix prior to mitosis or eiosis in eukaryotic cells and during prokaryotic fission in prkaryotic cells.
Centrosome
Central microtubule organizing center of cells. In animal cells, it contains two centrioles
histone
protein molecule responsible for packing chromatin
Checkpoint
in the cell cycle, one of several oints where the cell cycle can stop or continue on, depending on the internal signal it receives; ensures that each step of the cell cycle is completed before the next one begins.
Chromatid
A single DNA strand of a chromosome. Chromosomes may consist of a pair of sister chromatids
chromain
Network of fibrils consisting of DNA and associated proteins observed within a nucleus that is not dividing.
chromosome
Structure consisting of DNA complexed with proteins tat transmits genetic information from the previous generation of cells and organisms to the next generation
Contact inhibition
in cell culture, the point where cells stop diviing when they become a one-cell think sheet.
cyclin
protein that cycles in quantity as the cell cycle prgresses; combines with and activates the kinases that function to promote the events of the cycle
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm following mitosis and meiosis
DNA replication
snthesis of a new DNA double helix prior to mitosis or eiosis in eukaryotic cells and during prokaryotic fission in prkaryotic cells.
histone
protein molecule responsible for packing chromatin
Interphase
Staes of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2) during which growth and DNA synthesis occur when the nucleus is not actively dividing
kinase
enzume that activates another enzyme by adding a phosphate group
malignant
invasive tumor that may spread
Metaphase
mitotic phase during which chromoomes are aligned at the spindle equator
metastasis
spread of cancer from the place of orgin throughout the body; caused by the abilityof cancer cells to migrate and invade tissues.
mitosis
process in which parent nucleus produces two daugher nuclei, each having the same number and kinds of chromosomes as the parent nucleus.
nucleosome
in the nucleus of a eukaruotic cell, a unit composed of DNA wound around a core of eight histone proteins, giving the apperance of a string of beads.
prophase
mitotic phase duing which chromatin condenses so that chromosomes appear; chromosomes are scattered.
signal
molecule that stimulates or inhibits an event in the cell cycle
sister chromatid
One of two genetically identical chromosomal units that are the result of DNA replication and are attached to each other at the centromere.
somatic cell
body cell; excludes cells that undergo meiosis and become sperm or egg
spindle
microtubule structure that brings about chromosomal movement during nuclear division
Spindle equator
disk formed during metaphase in which all of a cell's chromosomes lie in a single plane at right angles to the spindle fibers.
telomere
long, repeating DNA sequence at the ends of chromosomes; functions like a cap and keeps chromosomes from fusing with each other.
telophase
mitotic phase during which daughter cells are located at each pole
tumor
cells derived from a single mutated cell that has repeatedly undergone cell division; benign tumors remain at the site of orgin, while malignant tumors metastasize.