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18 Cards in this Set

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Define *Norms (Social)*:
Rules that regulate human life, including social conventions, explicit laws, and implicit cultural standards.
Define *Role*:
A given social position that is governed by a set of norms for proper behavior.
Define *Culture*:
A program of shared rules that govern the behavior of members of a community or society, and a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by most members of that community.
Define *Entrapment*:
A gradual process in which individuals escalate their committent to a course of action to justify their investment of time, money, or effort.
What is the *Attribution Theory*:
The theory that people are motivated to explain their own and others' behavior by attributing causes of that behavior to a situation or disposition.
Define *Fundamental Attribution Error*:
The tendency, in explaining other people's behavior, to overestimate personality factors and underestimate the influence of the situation.
Define *Self-Serving Bias*:
The tendency, in explaining one's own behavior, to take credit for one's good actions and rationalize one's mistakes.
Define *Just-World Hypothesis*:
The notion that many people need to believe that the world is fair and that justice is served; that bad people are punished and good people rewarded.
Define *Cognitive Dissonance*:
A state of tension that occurs when a person simultaneously holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent, or when a person'belief is incongruent when his or hers behavior.
What is *Validity Effect*:
The tendency of people to believe that a statement is true or valid simply because it has been repeated many times.
Define *Individualist Cultures*:
Cultures in which individual goals and wishes are prized above duty and relations with others.
Define *Collective Cultures*:
Cultures in which harmony with one's group is prized above individual goals and wishes.
Define *Groupthink*:
In close-knit groups the tendency for all members to think alike for the sake of harmony and to suppress disagreement.
Define *Diffusion of Responsibility*:
In organized or anonymous groups, the tendency of members to avoid taking responsibility for actions or decisions, assuming that others will do so.
Define *Deindividuation*:
In groups or crowds, the loss of awareness of one's own individuality.
Define *Ethnocentrism*:
The belief that one's own ethnic group, nation, or religion is superior to all others.
Define *Social Identity*:
The part of a person's self-concept that is based on his or her identification with a nation, culture, or ethnic group or with gender or other roles in society.
What is a *Stereotype*:
A summary impression of a group, in which a person believes that all members of the group share a common trait or traits (positive, negative, or neutral.)