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29 Cards in this Set

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chromosomal mutations
Changes in the structure of the chromosome.
Deletion
When part of a chromosome breaks and a piece is lost.
Duplication
When part of a chromosome breaks off and becomes attached to it's homologous chromosome.
Translocation
When part of a chromosome breaks off and becomes attached to a nonhomologous chromosome.
Inversion
Part of a chromosome breaks off, turns around and reattaches in reverse order.
Gene Mutations:
Frameshift Mutations
Caused by the addition or deletions of nucleotides. Alters order in which the mRNA bases are read.
Point Mutations
Caused by a change in only one single nucleotide.
Jumping genes
When large pieces of DNA are inserted into a gene.
Cancer
Uncontrolled, abnormal cell division. Cancer can result when a mutation affects the genes that control cell growth.
Oncogene
a gene that causes a cell to become cancerous.
Promoter
This causes the gene to be copied more often and more growth factor is produced.
Mutagen
A factor in the environment that can cause mutation.
Radiation
nuclear rays, UV rays, X-rays,Cosmic rays
Ames Test
A test for possible carcinogens. Bacteria are treated with the suspected carcinogen.
Protein Synthesis
The process by which organism's genotype is translated into it's phenotype.
RNA
A single-stranded nucleic acid that is involved in protein synthesis.
1. Messenger RNA
2. Transfer RNA
3. Ribosomal RNA.
The three types of RNA
Introns
DNA in eukaryotic cells that contain regions that do not code for proteins.
Exons
The sections of DNA and RNA that do contain codes for proteins.
Codon
A three-base section of mRNA. Most codons carry a code for a specific amino acid.
Anticodon
A sequence of three bases found on tRNA. Each tRNA carries only one anticodon.
Repressor
A protein that binds to DNA, turning off the genes that code for the digestive enzymes.
Mutation
Growth factor gene. Causes a change in protein production.
Carcinogen
A substance that tends to cause cancer. Many mutations are also carcinogens.
Selective Breeding
The breeding of organisms to produce certain desired traits in their offspring.
Inbreeding
The crossing of organisms that have a similar genotype.
Outbreeding
The crossing of distantly related organisms. Animals from a different species.
Karyotype
A photograph of all of an organisms chromosomes. It is used by scientists to learn more about chromosomes.
Clone
A clone is a product or offspring that is genetically identical to it's parent.