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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
production
used to describe the transformation
of resources into goods and services that people need or want
production and operations management (POM),
or simply operations
management, refers to all the activities involved in producing a firm’s goods and
services.
conversion process
the sequence of events that
convert resources (or inputs) into products and services.
analytic system
breaks raw materials into one or more distinct products, which
may or may not resemble the original material in form and function. In
meatpacking, for example, a steer is divided into hide, bone, steaks, and so on.
synthetic system
combines two or more materials to form a single product. In steel
manufacturing, iron is combined with small quantities of other minerals at high
temperatures to make steel
Mass production
manufacturing goods in large quantities—means little or no
customization.
Mass customization
using mass production techniques to produce customized
goods. The company also uses batch-of-one manufacturing, in which every product
is made to order from scratch.
five important tasks in designing an effective production process
forecasting
demand, planning for capacity, choosing a facility location, designing a facility
layout, and scheduling work.
production forecasts,
estimates of future
demand for the company’s products. These estimates are then used to plan, budget,
and schedule the use of resources
Capacity planning
is a long-term strategic decision
that establishes the overall level of resources needed to meet customer demand.
what are 4 types of facility layouts?
Process (functional)
– concentrates everything needed to complete one phase of the
production process in one place
• Product (assembly line)
– the production process occurs along a line
– products move from one workstation to the next
• Cellular
– groups dissimilar machines into work centers (or cells) to process
parts that have similar shapes and processing requirements
• Fixed-Position
– labour, materials, and equipment are brought to the location where the good
is being produced or the customer is being served
– i.e.: buildings, roads, bridges, airplanes
scheduling
determining how long
each operation takes and setting a starting and ending time for each. A master
schedule, often called a master production schedule (MPS), is a schedule of planned
completion of items
dispatching
or the issuing of
work orders to department supervisors. These orders specify the work to be done
and the schedule for its completion
Gantt chart.
Developed by Henry L.
Gantt in the early 1900s, the Gantt chart is a bar chart showing the amount of time
required to accomplish each part of a process.
program evaluation and review technique (PERT)
is
helpful. It is a planning tool that helps managers identify the optimal sequencing of
activities, the expected time for project completion, and the best use of resources
within a complex project.
To use PERT, the manager must
• Identify activities
• Determine sequence
• Establish time frame
• Diagram activity network
• Calculate longest completion path
• Refine timing
PERT uses four figures:what are they?
an
optimistic estimate (if things go well), a pessimistic estimate (if they don’t go well),
a most likely estimate (how long the task usually takes), and an expected time
estimate--an average of the other three estimates.
computer-aided design (CAD),
the application of computer
graphics and mathematical modeling to the design of products
computer-aided engineering (CAE),
engineers use computer-generated
three-dimensional images and computerized calculations to test products.
computer-aided
manufacturing (CAM)
The use of computers to control production equipment
In a CAD/CAM system, computer-aided design data are
converted automatically into processing instructions for production equipment to
manufacture the part or product.
computerintegrated
manufacturing (CIM)
The highest level of computerization in operations management in which all the elements of production--design,
engineering, testing, production, inspection, and materials handling--are integrated
into one automated system.
flexible manufacturing system
Such systems link numerous programmable machine tools by an automated
materials-handling system of conveyors known as automatic guided vehicles
(AGV’s). These driverless computer-controlled vehicles move materials from any
location on the factory floor to any other location. Changing from one product
design to another requires only a few signals from a central computer. This
flexibility saves both time and setup costs.
lead time
the period that elapses
between placing the supply order and receiving materials.
what are 3 methods that companies use to control
inventory and manage the production process
just-in-time systems, material
requirements planning, and manufacturing resource planning.
supply-chain
management
all of the facilities, functions, and
activities involved in the production of goods and services going from suppliers to
customers.