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46 Cards in this Set

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Who was LaSalle?
French EXPLORER and FUR TRADER; wanted to find a NORTHWEST PASSAGE.
Why was La Salle called the FRENCH CORONADO?
Because of his TRAGIC DEATH.
What was LaSalle's real name?
ROBERT CAVALIER
Why were there so few French in the New World at first?
At first mostly men came TEMPORARILY for fur trading.
How did New France get its start?
With the founding of QUEBEC by SAMUEL CHAMPLAIN.
Spain came to America for CONQUEST. England came to RECREATE the ENGLISH WAY OF LIFE. What was New France based on?
TRADING (especially furs)
Why did the French have friendly relationships with the Indians, unlike the Spanish and English.
They were DEPENDENT ON THE INDIANS for trading and learning how to live in New France. MISSIONARIES treated Indians with RESPECT.
Who first explored the Ohio River?
LASALLE with the help of the SENECA INDIANS.
Who were Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet?
Marquette (A PRIEST) and Joliet (FUR TRADER)EXPLORED the MISSISSIPPI River for France.
How was Louisiana formed?
LASALLE claimed it for France and named it for KING LOUIS XVI.
How large was Louisiana supposed to be?
Most of the HEART of the COUNTRY: GREAT LAKES to GULF OF MEXICO, from APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS to ROCKY MOUNTAINS.
How did LaSalle die?
He got LOST while setting up forts on the Mississippi River and RAN OUT OF FOOD, LOST ALL BUT 1 SHIP. The small group of men who were left MURDERED HIM.
What two areas did France end up controlling in America?
1. ST. LAWRENCE RIVER, controlled by QUEBEC & MONTREAL;
2. MOUTH OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER controlled by NEW ORLEANS.
Who was King Hendrick?
TIYANOGA, leader of the MOHAWK INDIANS. Visting England, he called himself King Hendrick.
Which Indians helped the French? Which were on the side of the English?
FRENCH - ALGONKIAN & HURON (from St. Lawrence Valley)
ENGLISH - LEAGUE OF IROQUOIS
What was the LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS?
Founded to STOP WARFARE among INDIAN NATIONS. 6 NATIONS: Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onodaga, Seneca & Tuscarora.
CONTROLLED ONLY EASY PASSAGE between New England and St. Lawrence Valley.
Why did the Iroquois League attack the Huron and other Indians?
They had trapped all the beavers in Hudson Valley so needed to GAIN CONTROL OF THEIR NEIGHBOR'S FUR TRADE.
Why did the French wage war on the Iroquois League?
Iroquois EXPANSION THREATENED France's FUR TRADE.
What wars were fought between England and their Indian allies, and France and their Indian allies to control the fur trade?
KING WILLIAM'S WAR 1689-1697
QUEEN ANNE'S WAR - 1702 - 1713
KING GEORGE'S WAR - 1744-1748.
Who was Hannah Duston and what does her story illustrate?
KIDNAPPED by Abenaki INDIANS with her BABY & NURSE. Indians KILLED BABY. Hannah & nurse ESCAPED by KILLING 4 adults, 6 children with hatchets, and SCALPING them. Shows the BRUTALITY OF THE FRONTIER.
What shifted the power between England and France in favor of the English?
POPULATION GROWTH of English. French = 80,000, English = 1,000,000.
Who started the OHIO COMPANY OF VIRGINIA and why?
English LAND SPECULATORS got a grant for half a million acres along the Ohio River.
What was France's reaction to the Ohio Co. of VA?
Built FORTS along the OHIO RIVER to protect their own claims.
What was the Albany Plan of Union?
Plan drawn up at CONFERENCE of BRITISH & INDIANS to discuss relationship. BEN FRANKLIN urged colonies to JOIN FOR THEIR MUTUAL DEFENSE. Indians (under King Hendrick) agreed.
Why did the colonies reject the Albany Plan of Union?
Colonists didn't want to GIVE UP POWER to a central government or PAY TAXES for joint defense.
What was the French and Indian War about?
BRITISH and FRENCH fought for CONTROL of AMERICA.
What was "the Forks of the Ohio" and why was it important to control it?
where the ALLEGHENY River and the MONONGAHELA River MEET to form the OHIO River. Whom ever controlled this location, would CONTROL ACCESS to the OHIO VALLEY.
How did Fort Duquensne come to be built?
The French RAN WASHINGTON'S TROOPS OUT of the Forks and TOOK OVER THE FORT they were building.
What was Fort Necessity?
The fort WASHINGTON built while in RETREAT FROM THE FORKS.
What was the significance of The Battle of Fort Necessity?
The FIRST BATTLE of the French and Indian War - the French again defeated Washington's army.
What was the Seven Years War?
From 1756-1763, BRITAIN and FRANCE FOUGHT in EUROPE & AMERICA. The French & Indian War was part of this larger fight.
What were France's advantages in the French & Indian War?
1. Controlled the INTERIOR OF THE COUNTRY.
2. SINGLE COLONIAL GOVERNMENT
3. PROFESSIONAL SOLDIERS sent from France.
4. Help from LOYAL INDIANS.
What were Britain's advantages in the War?
1.MORE PEOPLE - bigger fighting force.
2. British colonies CONCENTRATED along Atlantic Coast so EASIER TO DEFEND.
3. Colonists were PERMANENT RESIDENTS so PASSIONATE in DEFENDING OWN LAND.
Why did the Iroquois abandon the English during the war?
They figured the French were winning and wanted TO BE ON THE WINNING SIDE to have a good relationship with the victor.
How did the French defeat General Braddock when the General made a second attempt to win back Fort Duquesne for the British?
250 FRENCH SOLDIERS DRESSES AS INDIANS & 600 REAL INDIANS. British in RED COATS but COULDN'T SEE where the FRENCH soldiers were. Braddock LOST 2/3 of his soldiers.
What were the major eastern waterways that were important to control?
MISSISSIPPI, ST.LAWRENCE & HUDSON.
What battle turned the tide for the British?
1758 FORT CARILLON was attacked twice (by JAMES ABERCROMBY)and finally the French - under LOUIS MONTCALM - withdrew. Brits RENAMED the fort TICONDEROGA.
How did England's Secretary of State WILLIAM PITT ensure British victory?
He POURED VAST AMOUNTS OF MONEY AND TROOPS into the war effort.
What were two other decisive battles that led to British victory?
1. British captured FORTS LOUISBOURG & DUQUESNE (renamed it FORT PITT).
2. BATTLE OF QUEBEC-JAMES WOLFE vs. LOUIS MONTCALM. British discovered a HIDDEN PATH up the cliffs to Quebec in the dark of night. TURNING POINT OF THE WAR.
What was the Treaty of Paris?
1763 - ENDED 7 YEARS WAR. 1. FRANCE'S LANDS lands East of Mississippi TO ENGLAND (except New Orleans);
2. SPAIN gave England FLORIDA;
3. France gave LOUISIANA to SPAIN.
What was Pontiac's Uprising?
OTTAWA Indians under CHIEF PONTIAC DROVE OUT & KILLED BRITISH from OHIO VALLEY.
Why did the Ottawa Indians become nervous about the British after the war?
Their PROTECTORS (FRENCH) were gone and they were left with HOSTILE BRITISH.
How did Jeffrey Amherst, British officer in charge of Indian Affairs, want to deal with the Indians?
Make a GIFT OF BLANKETS INFECTED WITH SMALLPOX!
Who was The Prophet and what did he advise Pontiac to do?
RETURN to the TRADITIONAL INDIAN WAYS, stop using anything from the white world.
How did the British finally get Pontiac to stop fighting them?
British MET with FRANCE'S INDIAN ALLIES in 1764 to discuss peace, giving the Indians MEDALS AS SYMBOL OF PEACE.
What was the Proclamation of 1763?
British FORBID SETTLEMENTS WEST OF APPLACHIAN MTNS. because they were TOO DANGEROUS (and expensive to defend from Indians).