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196 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cerebrum (largest part of the brain)
cerebellum (little brain)
entire brain
ganglion (knot)
word or phrase
mening/o, meningi/o
meninges (membrane)
spinal cord or bone marrow
stupor, sleep
exaggerated fear or sensitivity
carry, bear
phren/o, psych/o, thym/o
somn/o, somn/i, hypn/o
spine (thorn)
spondyl/o, vertebr/o
three dimensional or solid
tone, tension
order or coordination
thalamus (a room)
ventricle (belly or pouch)
abnormal impulse toward
slight paralysis
central nervous system (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
portion of the ventral nervous system contained within the cranium
largest portion of the brain; divided into right and left halves, known as cerebral hemispheres, that are connected by a bridge of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum; lobes of the cerebrum are named after the skill bones they underlie
frontal lobe
anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
parietal lobe
portion posterior to the frontal lobe, responsible for sensation such as pain, temperature, and touch
temporal lobe
portion that lies below the frontal lobe, responsible for hearing, taste, and smell
occipital lobe
portion posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes, responsible for vision
cerebral cortex
outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of fray matter, responsible for higher mental functions
thalamus (diencephalon)
each of two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex
convolutions (mounds) of the cerebral hemispheres
shallow grooves that separate gyri
deep grooves in the brain
portion of the brain located below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum, responsible for control coordination of skeletal muscles
region of the brain that serves as a relay between the cerebrum, cerebellum, spinal cord; responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temp; the three levels are the mesencephalon (mid brain), pons, and medulla oblongata
series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluid
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
plasma like clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
spinal cord
column of nervous tissue from brainstem through the vertebrae, responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body
three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid mater
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
nerves that branch from the central nervous system, including nerves of the brain and spinal cord
cranial nerves
12 pairs of nerves arising from the brain
spinal nerves
31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
sensory nerves
nerves that conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory information to the brain; also called afferent nerves
motor nerves
nerves that conduct motor impulses from the brain to muscles and glands; also called efferent nerves
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various glands
control center for the autonomic nervous system located below the thalamus (diencephalon)
sympathetic nervous system
division of the ANS concerned primarily with preparing the body in stressful or emergency situations
parasympathetic nervous system
division of the ANS that is most active ordinary conditions; it counterbalances the effects of the sympathetic system by restoring the body to a restful state after a stressful experience
inability to speak
difficulty speaking
a deep sleep
a state of mental confusion caused by disturbances in cerebral function
an impairment of intellectual function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and confusion
motor deficit
loss or impairment of muscle function
sensory deficit
loss of impairment of sensation
pain along the course of a nerve
temporary or permanent loss of motor control
flaccid paralysis
defective (flabby) or absent muscle control caused by a nerve lesion
spastic paralysis
stiff and awkward muscle control caused by a central nervous system disorder
partial paralysis of the right or left half of the body
pain that follows the pathway of the sciatic nerve caused by compression or trauma of the nerve or its roots
sudden, transient disturbance in brain function resulting from abnormal firing of nerve impulse
to pull together; type of seizure that causes a series of sudden, involuntary contractions of muscles
tactile stimulation
evoking a response by touching
increased sensitivity to stimulation such as touch or pain
abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without objective cause
any of many types of loss of neurologic function involving interpretation of sensory information
inability to judge the form of an object by touch
inability to locate a sensation properly, such as locate a point touched on the body
Alzheimer disease
disease of structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible deterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability, and death
cerebral palsy (CP)
condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth; characterized by partial paralysis and lack of muscle coordination
cerebrovascular disease
disorder resulting from a change within one or more blood vessels of the brain
cerebral arteriosclerosis
hardening of the arteries of the brain
cerebral athersclerosis
condition of lipid buildup within the blood vessels of the brain
cerebral aneurysm
dilation of a blood vessel in the brain
cerebral thrombosis
presence of a stationary clot in a blood vessel of the brain
cerebral embolism
obstruction of a blood vessel in the brain by an embolus transported through the circulation
cerebrovascular accident (CVA), stroke
obstruction of a blood caused by cerebrovascular disease, occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus or thrombus or intracranial hemorrhage after rupture of an aneurysm
transient ischemic attack (TIA)
brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain; usually caused by a partial occlusion that results in temporary neurologic deficit; often precedes a CVA
inflammation of the brain
disorder affecting the central nervous system, characterized by recurrent seizures
stiffening-jerking, a major motor seizure involving all muscle groups; previously termed grand mal seizure
seizure involving a brief loss of consciousness without motor involvement; previously termed petit mal (little bad) seizure
tumor of glial cells graded by degree of malignancy
herniated disk (disc)
protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root
herpes zoster
viral disease affecting the peripheral nerves characterized by painful blisters that spread over the skin following the affected nerves, usually unilateral; also known as shingles
Huntington chorea, Huntington disease (HD)
hereditary disease of the central nervous system characterized by bizarre involuntary body movements and progressive dementia
abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain as a result of developmental anomalies, infection, injury, or tumor
benign tumor of the coverings of the brain
inflammation of the meninges
migraine headache
paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attaches of mostly unilateral headache often accompanied by disordered vision, nausea, or vomiting, lasting hours or days, and caused by dilation of arteries
multiple sclerosis
disease of the central nervous system characterized by the demyelination (deterioration of the myelin sheath) of nerve fibers, with episodes of neurologic dysfunction (exacerbation) followed by recovery (remission)
myasthenia gravis
autoimmune disorder that affects the neuromuscular junction causing a progressive decrease in muscle strength; activity resumes and strength returns after a period of rest
inflammation of the spinal cord
sleep disorder characterized by a sudden, uncontrollable need to sleep, attacks of paralysis, and dreams intruding while awake
Parkinson disease, parkinsonism
slowly progressive degeneration of nerves in the brain characterized by tremor, rigidity of muscles, and slow movements, usually occurring later in life
paralysis on one side of the body
paralysis from the waist down
paralysis of all four limbs
inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis
inflammation involving two or more nerves, often caused by a nutritional deficiency such as lack of thiamine
sleep apnea
periods of breathing cessation (10 seconds or more) that occur during sleep, often causing snoring
spina bifida
congenital defect in the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching of spinal membranes or tissue
electroencephalogram (EEG)
record of the minute electrical impulses of the brain, sued to identify neurologic conditions that affect brain function and level of consciousness
evoked potentials
minute electrical waves that are sorted out of ongoing EEG activity to diagnose auditory, visual, and sensory pathway disorders
recording of various aspects of sleep to diagnose sleep disorders
lumbar puncture (LP)
introduction of a specialized needle into the spine in the lumbar region for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose, such as to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for testing; also called spinal tap
magnetic resonance imaging MRI
non ionizing imaging technique using magnetic fields (MRI) and radio waves
magnetic resonance agiography MRA
magnetic resonance imaging of blood vessels
intracranial MRA
magnetic resonance image of the head to visualize the vessels of the circle of Willis
extracranial MRA
magnetic resonance image of the neck to visualize the carotid artery
nuclear medicine imaging
radionuclide organ imaging
SPECT brain scan
scan combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography to produce images of the brain after administration of radioactive isotopes
positron emission tomography
technique combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography to produce images of brain anatomy and corresponding physiology; used to study stroke, Alzheimer and more
x-ray imaging
cerebral angiogram
x-ray of blood vessels in the brain after intracarotid injections of contrast medium
computed tomography
cat scan
x-ray of the spinal cord made after intraspinal injection of contrast medium
reflex testing
test performed to observe the body’s response to a stimulus
deep tendon reflexes (DTR)
involuntary contraction after percussion at a tendon +1 diminished +2 normal +3 brisk +4 hyperactive
babinksi sign or reflex
pathologic response to stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot; a positive sign indicated when the toes dorsiflex
transcranial sonogram
image made by sending ultrasound beams through the skull to assess blood flow in intracranial vessels; used in diagnosis and management of stroke and head trauma
excision of part of the skill to approach the brain
incision into the skill to approach the brain
removal of a herniated disk; often done percutaneously
excision of one or more laminae of the vertebrae to approach the spinal cord
vertebral lamina
flattened posterior portion of the vertebral arch
use of a microscope to dissect minute structures during surgery
surgical repair of a nerve
spinal fusion
treatment of malignancies, infections and other disease with chemical agents to destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce
radiation therapy
treatment of neoplastic disease using ionizing radiation to impede proliferation of malignant cells
stereotactic (sterotaxic) radiosurgery
radiation treatment to inactivate malignant lesion, using multiple, precise external radiation beams focused on a target with the aid of a sterotactic frame and imaging such as CT, MRI, or angiography; used to treat inoperable brain tumors and other lesions
stereotactic (sterotaxic) frame
mechanical device used to localize a point in space targeting a precise site
agent that relieves pain
agent that prevents or lessens convulsions
agent that counteracts depression
agent that quiets nervousness
agent that induces sleep
emotional feeling or mood
flat affect
significantly dulled emotional tone or outward reaction
a lack of interest or display of emotion
a state of unresponsive to one’s outside environment, usually including muscle rigidity, staring, and inability to communicate
persistent belied that has no basis of reality
grandiose delusion
a person’s false belief that he or she possesses great wealth, intelligence, or power
persecutory delusion
a person’s false belief that someone is plotting against him or her with intent to harm
a restless, dissatisfied mood
an exaggerated, unfounded feeling of well-being
a false perception of the sense for which there is no reality, most commonly hearing or seeing things
the formation of thoughts or ideas, for example, suicidal ideation
state of abnormal elation and increased activity
a psychologic condition in which anxiety is prominent
a mental condition characterized by distortion of reality resulting in the inability to communicate or function within one’s environment
though disorder
though that lacks clear processing or logical direction
major depression, major depression illness, clinical depression, major affective disorder, unipolar disorder
a disorder causing periodic disturbances in mood that affect concentration, sleep, activity, appetite, and social behavior
a milder affective disorder characterized by a chronic depression
manic depression bipolar disorder (BD)
affective disorder characterized by mood swings of mania and depression
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
an affective disorder marked by episodes of depression that most often occur during the fall and winter and remit in the spring
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
the most common anxiety disorder, characterized by chronic, excessive, uncontrollable worry about everyday problems
panic disorder (PD)
a disorder of sudden, recurrent attacks of intense feelings, including symptoms that mimic a hear attack
exaggerated fear of a specific object or circumstance that causes anxiety and panic
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
a condition resulting from an extremely traumatic experience that leaves the sufferer with persistent thoughts and memories of the ordeal
obsessive-compulsive disorder
an anxiety disorder featuring unwanted, senseless obsessions accompanied by repeated compulsions
a preoccupation with thoughts of disease and concern that on is suffering from a serious condition that persists despite medical reassurance to the contrary
a development disability commonly appearing during the first three years of life, resulting from neurologic disorder affecting brain function, evidence by difficulties with verbal and nonverbal communication, and an inability to relate to anything beyond oneself
a developmental disability characterized by a difficulty understanding written or spoken words, sentences, or paragraphs, affecting reading, and spelling, and self expression
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
a dysfunction characterized by consistent hyperactivity, distractibility, and lack of control over impulses, which interferes with ability to function normally at school, home or work
mental retardation
a condition of sub average intelligence characterized by an IQ of 70 or below, resulting in the inability to adapt normal social activities
anorexia nervosa
a sever disturbance in eating behavior caused by abnormal perceptions about one’s body weight, evidenced by an overwhelming fear of becoming fat that results in a refusal to eat and body weight well below normal
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by efforts to limit digestion through induced vomiting, use of laxatives, or excessive exercise
substance abuse disorders
mental disorders resulting from abuse of substances such as drugs, alcohol, or other toxins, causing personal and social dysfunctions
a disease of brain chemistry causing a distorted cognitive and emotional perception of one’s environment
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
electrical shock applied to the brain induced convulsion; used to treat severely depressed patients
light therapy
use of specialized illuminating light boxes and visors to treat seasonal affective disorder
treatment of psychiatric disorders using verbal and nonverbal interactions with patients, individually or in a group, employing specific actions and techniques
behavioral therapy
treatment to decrease or stop unwanted behaviors
cognitive therapy
treatment to change unwanted patterns of thinking
psychotropic drugs
medications used to treat mental illnesses
antianxiety agents, anxiolytic agents
drugs to reduce anxiety
neuroleptic agents
drugs used to treat psychosis, especially schizophrenia