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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Any molecule that triggers an immune response.
The ability of the body to defend itself against foreign agents or abnormal body cells.
B cells recognize Ag & begin dividing repeatedly into daughter cells that become plasma or memory cells.
Function of B-Cells
Can result from trauma, drug interactions, infection, etc.
Onset and Stadium fever stages.
Bood plasma protiens made by plasma cells that form complexes with invaders. Y-shaped molecules found in blood plasma.
Usually 25-40% of all WBC, numbers elevate during chronic infections(most involved in specific immunity).
Ag receptor on surface of B-cells.
Consists of Lymphocytes and Macrophages - these cells activate the immune system when foreign antigen found.
White Pulp
Local anaphaphylatic due to inhaled allergen - massive histamine release with spasms of bronchioles in air passges, common in children, relieved with bronchial dilators.
Contains B and T Lymphocytes - Fight pathogens.
75-80% of ciruculating Ab, only one to cross placenta to transfer mothers Ab.
Adenoids, 1 medial, on superior wall of pharynx just behind nasal cavity.
Based on the actions of T lymphocytes directly attack diseased or "suspicious" cells and lyse them or release chemicals that bring in other immune cells to finish the destruction.
Cellular Immunity
From damaged nerve endings in tissue stumulated by inflammatory chemicals, and by tissue swelling, signals the body to rest the injured part.
1st to be produced in infection, monomer is Ag receptor on B-cell PM, pentamer is in plasma predominant in primary immune response, includes Anti-A & Anti-B.
Simplest, consists of sprinkling of lymphocytes, found in mucous membrane & CT.
In secretions - prevents pathogens attachment to body surfaces.
Lymphatic capillaries-collecting vessels-lymph nodes-more collecting vessels-six lymphatic trunks-two collecting ducts(thoracic & Rt. lymphatic-subclavian veins).
Route of Vessels
Based on the actions of anibodies Ab. Circulating Ab directly binds bacteria, toxins, and viruses and "tag" them for destruction.
Humoral Immunity
Polypepetides secreted by cells that have been invaded by viruses. Warns neighboring cells. Activate natual killers, stimulate destruction of cancer cells.
B-Cell Steps
The largest lymph vessels, formed by converging lymphatic trunks.
Collecting Ducts
Process that removes T-cells capable of attacking "self."
Clonal Deletion
Organisms that penetrate the skin and mucous membrane are attached by phagocytes = maacrophages and WBC - Play both a nonspecific and specific role in immunity.
IgE stimulates basophils to release imflammatory chemicals - hives, watery eyes, excess mucus, treated with antihistamine.
Immediage Allergic Response
Stores RBC and breaks up old RBC - Macrophages phagotize the remains - Immunity - Filters blood to move pathogens and debris.
Functions of the Spleen
From stem cells that colonize fatal liver, marrow, appendix, etc. Regulates humor mediated immunity, divide quickly and produce immunocompetent clones.
A group of about 20 blood plasma proteins that aid in nonspecific resistence and specific immunity. Cause Cytolysis.
Complement System
Colonize & mature in the thymus in fetus. Become immunocompetent.
Attack own body cells infected with viruses or that are cancerous.
Natural Killers
Major Histocompatibility Complex - Proteins unique to each person.
MHC I - Labeled "self"
MHC II - How they recognize each other
Secretes hormones - Thymopoeitin and Thymosin - stimulates development & maturation of T cells and seems to regulate other lymph organs.
Functions of Thymus
Severe, system-wide, causes airway constriction, difficulty breathing, vasodilation, criculatory shock. death. Treated with epinephrine.
Anaphylatic shock
Only 0-1% of all WBC, not primarily phagocytic. Aid other phagocytes by releasing Histamine vasodilator and Heparin to increase blood flow to infected site and inhibit clotting which would immobilize phagocytes.
Most chemical signals are these special chemical messengers that work between leukocytes and macrophages.
1 pair, posterior margin or oral cavity, left and right side of throat.
Virus and drugs can change normal self-Ag structure. Body won't recognize self-Ag and are perceived as foreign.
Es. Diabetis
Change in Self-Ag Stucture
Lymphocytes congregate in dense oval masses, temporary.
Lymphatic Nodules (follicles)
Make up 70-80% of body lymphocytes and regulate cell-mediated immunity. Regulate Cell Mediated Immunity.
Function of T-Cells
Located left upper abdominal region, inferior to diaphragm and behind stomach. Highly vascular and vulnerable to infection and blunt force trauma. Rupturing the Spleen can cause much blood loss, shock, death, requires Speenectemy. If damaged or removed, functions can be taken over by the liver.
In allergic reations, aids in ridding the body of parasites, in tonsils, skin, and mucous membrane, stimultates release of histamine, attract eosinophils to site of parasitic infection.
Plasma from blood exits at the capillaries, enters spaces between cells and then is picked up by lymph capillary. Clear, colorless, similar to blood plasma but less proteins.
Some B-Cells & Macrophages are the main APC. Since T-cells do not recognize free Ag.
Ag Presenting Cells (APC)
Patches of lymphatic tissue that form ring around entrance to pharynx. Have deep slits that trap ingested or inhale toxins - are then attached by WBC.
Caused by foreign HLA which is attacked by T-cells.
Tissue Transplant Rejection
To limit spread of the pathogen and destroy them. To remove the debris of damaged tissue and initiate tissue repair.
Function of Inflammation
Mostly injections of dead virus, live non-infectious virus, similar virus, or virus coat.
Microscopic capillaries consisting of a thin sac of endothelial cells loosely overlapping each other to create valve-like flaps. These are pressure regulated.
Lymph Capillaries
Excessive immune response to certain Ag.
Hypersensitivity (allergy)
In right thorax, drains right arm, right side of thorax & rt. head.
Right Lymphatic Duct
Failure of the body to recognize cells as "self" - produces Ab against self.
AIDS. Ab not produced, trick cells into internalizing the virus, no cure or remission.
Well defined anatomical sites with at least partial CT capsules that separate lymph tissue from neighboring tissues. Include: Lymph nodes, tonsisls, thymus, & spleen.
Lymphatic Organs
Some Ab react against similar self Ag.
Cross Reactivity
Clusters of nodules found constantly in the intestinal wall.
Peyer's Patches
Boy in the bubble-opposite of autoimmune, combined immune deficiencty diseases. Scarcity of B and T cells due to recessive allele. Body recognizes nothing as foreign.
1-4% of all WBC in body - Phagocytes, large parasites are surrounded & neutrophils release enzymes to dstroy them. (Allergies and parasitic infections)
Usually native Ag not exposed to blood. If barriers are broken down, sterility results.
Abnormal exposure to self-Ag to blood
Left side, larger, longer, begins in abdominal cavity, passes through diaphragm, and drains body below diaphragm, left arm and left head.
Thoracic Duct
Defensive response to tissue injury, trauma, or infection(itis). Includes: Pain, swelling, redness, and heat.
1 pair, in the root of tongue.
Swelling, Redness, Heat
Defeats invaders and saves memory of them for future responses in case of second exposure - uses memory. Involves B and T Lymphocytes.
Specific Defense
Immunity is directed against a specific invader. Attack is mounted and the threat destroyed in 7-10 days or so.
55-65% of all WBC in body - Highly mobile cells wanter in CT phagotizing bacteria - First on the scene when there is a cut or a wound.
-Flows slowly and under low pressure, valves prevent backflow
-Moved by rythmic contractions of lymph vessels (stretching stimulates contraction)
-Aided by skeletel muscle pump (Up with excercise)
-Often sheathed with an artery, so arterial pulsations aid in movement
-Thoracic (respiratory) pump aids in flow from abdominal to thoracic cavities
-Rapidly flowing blood in subclavians veins also pulls lymph into bloodstream
Flows of Lymph - List
First line of defense - Skin, Mucous membrane, Skin coated with chemicals, Lysosymes(in mucous), Acids, Friendly bacteria.
External Barriers
Gorged with RBC - RBC are stored and old RBC are broken up here.
Red Pulp
Mediated by several cells that release chemicals when damaged. Mast cells, basophils, lymphocytes, and platelets initiate the process followed by Leukocyte attack and tissue repair.
Inflammatory Process
Directed by forces similar to those that move blood in veins, but not pump.
Flow of Lymph
Numerous bean-shaped stuctures <3cm, usually indented on one side where lymph vessels enter & exit. Filter lymph - capsule containing two distinct regions.
Lymph Nodes
Complements form pore in microbe and punch hole in invader and kill it then macrophages and netrophils engulph dead invaders.
Various types, loosely defined, found throughout body tissue.
Lymphatic Tissue
Resemble veins, lymph vessel walls are thinner with more valves. Movement of fluid in lymph vessels is also dependent on skeletal muscle contractions which squeeze fluid through valves and move lymph back to the the heart to be re-added to blood.
Lymph Vessels
Located on Trachea, above heart. Large in fetus and shrinks as we age. Houses developing lymphocytes and sets up the immune system in newborns.
Become Macrophages - include both wandering and fixed cells, includes all other body phagocytes.
Contains macrophages - work to clean lymph.
When exposed to same invader, the body is able to mount a response in much less time because the immune system retains a blueprint of the first encounter. Sometimes only requires a few days.
All RBC and WBC develop in red bone marrow-made by embryonic stem cells in marrow.
Red Bone Marrow Involvement
Guard against a wide variety of invaders.
Includes: 1st Line of defense, and Inflammation, fever, and other active attacks
Nonspecific Resistence