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29 Cards in this Set

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approach to the study of cognitive development that seeks to measure the quantity of intelligence a person possesses.
psychometric approach
Galton "father of this approach"
Clusters of abilities, identified by Thurstone, which appear to be largely independent of each other
primary mental abilities
cube shaped model, developed by Guilford, consisting of 180 factors of intelligence
structure of intellect
operations, content, products
type of intelligence, proposed by Horn and Cattell, which is applied to novel problems and is relatively independent of educational and cultural influences.
fluid intelligence
type of intelligence, proposed by Horn and Cattell, involving the ability to remember and use learned information; it is relatively dependent on education and cultural background
crystallized intelligence
standards for evaluating performance of persons who take an intelligence test, obtained from scores of a large, representative sample who took the test while it was in preparation.
standarized norms
assessment of intelligence corresponding to the age of normal children whose performance a test taker can match
mental age
measurement of intelligence traditionally obtained by dividing a person's mental age by his or her chronological age and multiplying the result by 100.
intelligence quotient (IQ)
measurement of intelligence based on distribution of raw scores and standard deviation from the mean
deviation IQ
standardized test of infants and toddlers' mental and motor development
Bayley (II)
theory, propsed by Gardner, that distinct, multiple forms of intelligence exist in each person
theory of mulitple intelligences
theory, propsed by Sternberg, describing three types of intelligence: componential (analytical ability), experiential (insight and creativity), and contextual (practical thinking)
triarchic theory of intelligence
In sternberg's triarchic theory, the analytic aspect of intelligence, which determines how efficiently people process information and solve problems
componential element
In sternberg's triarchic theory, the insightful and creative aspect of intelligence, which determines how effectively people approach both novel and familiar tasks
experiential element
In Sternberg's triarchic theory, the practical aspect of intelligence, which determines how effectively people deal with their environment
contextual element
testing to determine a child's potential level of development
dynamic testing
instrument to measure the influence of the home environment on children's cognitive growth.
Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME)
model, proposed by Zajonc, which attributes effects of birth order on intelligence to the average level of cognitive maturity in the immediate family
confluence model
tendency of intelligence tests to include items calling for knowledge or skills more familiar or meaningful to some cultural groups than others
cultural bias
describing an intelligence test, that if it were possible to design, would have no culturally linked content
culture-free
describing an intelligence test that deals with experiences common to various cultures, in an attempt to avoid cultural bias.
culture-fair
systematic process of planning and providing therapeutic and educational services to faimiles that need help in meeting children's developmental needs
early intervention
aspects of the home environment that seem necessary for normal cognitive and psychosocial development
developmental priming mechanisms
significantly subnormal cognitive functioning
mental retardation
approach to educating gifted children, which broadens and deepens knowledge and skills through extra activities, projects, field trips, or mentoring.
enrichment
approach to educating gifted children, which mores them through the curriculum at an unusually rapid pace.
acceleration
ability to see situations in a new way, to produce innovations, or to discern previously unidentified problems and find novel solutions
creativity
thinking aimed at finding the one correct answer to a problem
convergent thinking
thinking that produces a variety of novel, diverse possibilities
divergent thinking