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11 Cards in this Set

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When a large amount of protein is found in the urine, what protein in blood plasma is responsible?
albumin - THE major protein in blood plasma
albuminuria
If albumin in detected in urine, it may indicate a leak in the glomerular membrane, which allows albumin to enter the renal tubule and pass into the urine.
microalbuminuria
through more sensitive testing, abnormal amounts of albumin may be detected, when ordinary tests are negative. Microalbuminuria is the earlies sign of diabetes mellitus & essential hypertension.
glycosuria
When sugar appears in urine - indicating diabetes mellitus (there is so much sugar in the blood that it spills over into the urine - the renal tubules cannot reabsorb all the sugar that filters out through the glomerular membrane.
specific gravity of urine
reflects the amount of wastes, minerals & solids in urine.

It compares the density of urine to water. The urine of those who have diabetes have a higher than normal specific gravity because of the presence of sugar.
ketone bodies test
Ketones (or acetones) are breakdown products resulting from cells burning fat.
Ketones accumulate in blood & urine when the body breaks down fat instead of sugar.
ketonuria
occurs in diabetes mellitus when cells deprived of sugar use up fat for energy. Also happens in starvation when sugar is not available.

The presence of keytones in blood is dangerous as they increase the acidity of blood.
acidosis
high acidity in blood due to keytone presence

This can lead to coma & death.
Sediment test
abnormal particles present in urine.

Included are cells (epithelia, white blood or red cells), bacteria, crystals, or CASTS (cylindrical structures of protein containing cellular elements).
Pus - Pyuria
gives a turbid (cloudy) appearance to urine. Due to large numbers of leukocytes due to infection or inflammation in the kidney or bladder.
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Excess of phenylketones (substances that accumulate in the urine of infants born lacking the enzyme phenylalanine)in the urine; diagnosed by a PKU test at birth.