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29 Cards in this Set

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CELL THEORY
All living things are composed of cells. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function. New cells are produced from existing cells.
PROKARYOTE
No nucleus, no membrane bound organells. Bacteria Only!
EUKARYOTE
Nucleus and organells
ORGANELLES
It's a discrete structure of a cell having specialized functions, and is separately enclosed in its own lipid membrane.
CELL WALL
Support/protection, not in animal cells
NUCLEUS
Contains DNA in form of chromosomes/chromatin, they control protein synthesis and thus all cell functions
CYTOSKELETON
Cell support, made of microtubules and microfilaments
RIBOSOMES
Site of protein synthesis
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
Endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubules, vesicles and sacs that are interconnected. They may serve specialized functions in the cell including protein synthesis, sequestration of calcium, production of steroids, storage and production of glycogen.
GOLGI APPARATUS
Enzumes that attach lipids to proteins
VACUOLES
Stores food, water or waste inside a cell. Plants have a huge central vacuole full of water that keeps the cell stiff.
CHLOROPLASTS
In plants only, site of photosynthesis. They evolved from small bacteria that began living inside big cells.
MITOCHORDRIA
Site of cellular respiration which makes ATP (energy) by breaking down glucose, also living inside bigger cells.
MOVEMENT THROUGH THE CELL MEMBRANE
Cell membrane is made of a phospholipid bilayer with a few proteins. Cell membrane is made of a phospholipid bilayer with a few proteins.
OSMOSIS
No energy, diffusion of water.
HYPERTONIC
High solute, low water
HYPOTONIC
Low solute, high water
ISOTONIC
Balanced solute and water moving cells into different solutions can cause some problems.
PLASMOLYSIS
Cells put into hypertonic solution and they lose water and shrivel.
CYTOLYSIS
Cells put into fresh water solution and they gain water and they swell and pop.
CONTRACTILE VACUOLE
Organell in fresh water protists that pumps water out of the cell to prevent cytolysis.
FACILITATED DIFFUSION
NO ENERGY, movement through membrane proteins from high to low concentration, Result:equilibrium
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
ENERGY, movement through a membrane protein from low to high concentrate, result: No equilibrium
USE ENERGY
Active transportation "Not equilibrium"
DONT USE ENERGY
Diffusion, Osmosis, Facilitated diffusion. "equilibrium"
ENDOCYTOSIS
Actively transporting large amounts into cells using membrane folds. (Phagocytosis) in a engulfing motion.
EXOCYTOSIS
Opposite of endocytosis.
UNICELLULAR
One cell ex. bacteria.
MULTICELLULAR
More than 1 cell. Levels of organization: Cell--Tissue--Organ--Organ System.